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presented to 

of tbe 

Xflniversit? of Toronto 

M . 





Physiology and Temperance 








Entered, according to the Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and ninety-three, by WILLIAM BRIGGS, Toronto, in the office of the 
Minister of Agriculture, at Ottawa. 


IN preparing this text-book, much difficulty was experienced 
in dealing with a subject of a somewhat technical character 
without using too freely the technical terms incident to 
Anatomy and Physiology. The practice of the authors of 
the best text-books published has, however, been followed. 
The introduction of a limited number of the simpler scientific 
names, while partly a necessity, nevertheless affords an oppor- 
tunity for pupils to become early acquainted with the various 
parts of the human frame under names which are more 
correct and more suitable than many of the familiar terms in 
common use ; besides, experience shows it is impossible to 
fix in the memory a knowledge of any subject, except by 
the use of its own appropriate nomenclature. 

The object of the author has been to put clearly before the 
teachers and pupils the leading facts concerning the structure 
and functions of the various organs of the body, and, at the 
same time, to associate with these facts the physiological 
action and effects of alcoholic stimulants and narcotics. The 
pupil is, in this way, at every turn confronted with the evil 
effects of alcohol and tobacco, the dangers accompanying 
their use, and the tremendous risk of tampering with such 
powerful agents of destruction. 


The benefits to be derived from a proper observance of the 
laws of health cannot be over-estimated, and while teachers 
inculcate abstinence from stimulants, they should impress 
upon their pupils the observance of such practices with regard 
to all the functions as would promote the highest possible 
development of mind and body. 

The author acknowledges his indebtedness to the follow- 
ing for valuable hints: Martin's "Human Body," Starling's 
"Human Physiology," Blaisdell's "Young Folks' Physiology," 
Steele's " Hygienic Physiology," " Manual of Hygiene," To- 
ronto, Sir B. W. Richardson's " Cantor Lectures on Alcohol," 
besides frequent reference to Gray, Foster, Huxley, Hare, 
Sajous, Nettleship, Lees, and many others. 


TORONTO, October, 1898. 




INTRODUCTORY : The Skeleton How it is built up .... 9 


THE BONES : The Number of Bones Uses Composition Structure 
* Growth and Repair Skull Trunk Upper Extremities 
Lower Extremities Joints Care of the Body Effects of 
Alcohol and Tobacco 15 


THE MUSCLES : The Structure of Muscles Arrangement Classifi- 
cation Tendons Care of Muscles Action of Alcohol and 
Tobacco on Muscular Sense .39 


THE SKIN : The Epidermis True Skin Glands of the Skin The 
Hair Nails Care of the Skin Bathing Skin Affections- 
Effects of Alcohol .48 


DIGESTION: Need for Food Mouth Teeth Salivary Glands 
Pharynx (Esophagus Stomach Intestines Pancreas 
Liver Kinds of Food Action of the Ferments Appetite 
Natural and Prepared Drinks Action of Alcohol on the 
Stomach On the Liver Effect of Tobacco on Digestion . . 58 


CIRCULATION : The Blood The Heart Arteries Veins How 
Blood is Made to Flow Effects of Alcohol on the Heart 
On the Blood-vessels Effects of Tobacco on the Heart . . 80 




RESPIRATION: Why we Breathe The Lungs The Voice The 
Pleura The Act of Breathing Change of Elements in the 
Lungs Effects of Impure Air Ventilation How Heat is 
kept up Need of Clothing Effects of Alcohol on Respir- 
ation Cigarette Smoking 91 


THE NERVOUS SYSTEM : The Brain Gray and White Matter Cere- 
brum Cerebellum Medulla Oblongata The Spinal Cord 
Nerves Sympathetic System Growth and Development of 
Brain Rest and Sleep Abuse of Narcotics Effects of Alco- 
hol on the Brain On the Nervous System Tobacco . . 107 


THE SPECIAL SENSES : Taste Smell Sight Hearing Touch Rela- 
tion of Special Senses Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco on the 
Special Senses 126 


tices Haemorrhage Cuts Bites of Animals Burns and Scalds 
Frost-bite Broken Bones Dislocations Sprains Insensi- 
ble Conditions Intoxication Drowning Suffocation by Gas 
Foreign Bodies in the Eye, Ear, etc. Poisons . . . 146 


How TO PREVENT DISEASE: Preventable Diseases Infectious and 
Contagious Diseases Means of Invading the Human System 
Antiseptics and Disinfectants The Sick Room Stimulants in 
the Sick Room 164 


PHYSICAL EXERCISE: The Benefits of Exercise Kind of Exercise 
Regulation of Exercise Time for Exercise Necessity for Ex- 
ercise Gymnastic Training Free Gymnastics .... 174 

APPENDIX I. Regulations of the Education Department respecting 

the Study of Physiology and Temperance ..... 194 

APPENDIX II. Quotations from the License Act with respect to Minors 195 
APPENDIX III. An Act respecting the Use of Tobacco by Minors . 196 





1. The Skeleton. Man is the noblest being God has 
made to inhabit this earth. Let us examine the human body. 
First, notice the framework. It is not comely nor attractive, 
and even appears ill-adapted to form the framework of a 
living being, with high and noble purposes, capable of great 
attainments. Yet every bone is a model of wisdom and per- 
fection, adapted to a specific object. The whole skeleton, so 
irregular in outline and so unattractive to look at, is built 
and fashioned with a degree of wisdom which taxes the mind 
to comprehend. Every prominence, every depression, every 
line, every curve, has a special purpose. 

2. The Joints. This framework is a movable structure, 
and, to permit of motion, is supplied with a certain number 
and variety of joints, by which the limbs may be moved in 
various directions and the whole body from place to place. 
The utility and the wise construction of these joints will be 
pointed out in another place. 

3. The Muscles. The power by which the joints are 
moved is provided by the muscles, which in a great measure 
form the bulk of the limbs and body generally. The muscles,, 
stretching from point to point, are attached to the bones by 
tendons of a fine cord-like nature, and, by a power which 


they have of contracting and relaxing, produce motion of the 
joints. They act upon the principle of the levers one or 
other of the three kinds. In the attachment of the muscles 
we see the admirable purpose which the various prominences 
and depressions upon the bones are intended to serve. 

4. Fascia. The muscles are invested and bound down by 
a fine, thin membrane, called fascia, which protects and keeps 
them in place. 

5. The Nerves. The muscles are moved and controlled 
through the nerves supplied to them. The nerves form the 
connecting links between the muscles at one end and the 
brain and spinal cord, or marrow, at the other. The brain 
and spinal cord may be called the headquarters of the nervous 
system. Nerve cords of various sizes extend from the head- 
quarters to the numerous muscles of the body, where they 
divide and ramify. Each nerve is like a telegraph wire, along 
which are conveyed communications from the nerve centres 
to every part of the muscular system. Orders may be trans- 
mitted from the brain to a muscle, when it is to move, how it 
is to move, and when it is to cease moving. All muscles 
employed in moving the body are under the control of the 
will of the individual. 

6. Fat. Outside the muscles, and often filling in the in- 
equality of surface, there is, during the greater part of life, a 
layer of adipose tissue or fat. This serves very important 
purposes in the physical economy, and forms a valuable cover- 
ing and cushion to the parts beneath. It also gives beauty to 
the figure, by producing graceful form of limb and body. 
The fat is contained in the cells of a structure known as 
cellular tissue, which serves also as a connective tissue be- 
tween parts. 

7. The Skin. The human body thus built up is covered 
by the skin. The skin not only forms a protective covering 
to the parts beneath, but, being possessed of nervous sensi- 


bility, it indicates to the system the state of the atmosphere 
and other surrounding conditions, and gives warning of de- 
structive influences. In some parts, as in the fingers, this 
sensibility is most delicate and acute. Here the nerves of 
sense are more closely distributed, and are in freer communi- 
cation with each other. They act as sentinels to warn the 
body of danger, and when danger is at hand they telegraph 
to the brain or spinal cord to move the limb or body from 
this exposed position, or to assume a position of defence. 
The lightning speed with which these communications are 
made may be seen when a finger unexpectedly comes in con- 
tact with a hot substance. 

8. The Brain and Spinal Cord. We have now before 
us a self-moving structure, made up of bones, ligaments to 
hold together the bones at the joints, muscles, fat, connective 
tissue and skin, with a nervous system, consisting of the 
brain, spinal marrow, and nerves communicating with every 
part, to superintend and manage this movable tenement. 
The force required to move the system and the heat necessary 
for life are self -created. 

9. Atoms. The body formed of these several tissues is 
composed of material of limited durability. There is a limit 
to life with regard to our individual being, but there -is a 
much briefer limit to the life of the particles out of which the 
tissues are constructed. Each of these atoms or cells has 
an individual life. It passes a state of existence of com- 
paratively short duration. During its term of existence it 
has the ordinary stages of life birth, growth, development, 
maturity, decline and death. The cells are the offspring of 
parent cells, and in turn beget offspring before they die. In 
infancy, childhood, maturity and old age the body is ever 
perishing. It is this constant loss of particles, this wear and 
tear of tissue, which causes the demand for daily food. Until 
the body is fully matured, food is required for the growth of 


the tissue; subsequently it is only needed to maintain the 
body, to make repairs and to supply heat. The human body 
may be likened to a building, composed of many parts, of 
different forms, size, density and durability. Together they 
constitute a perfect structure, harmonious in every part. But 
one or more of these pieces decay, and to retain the integrity 
of the structure, repair is made by substituting a sound piece 
for the one decayed or worn out. Thus repair of a building 
may be effected by a competent builder, even to replacing the 
foundation stone. In this manner repair is constantly taking 
place in the living body. It is a work of nature, and is 
carried on by wise laws and with unerring precision. 

10. Digestion. The source of supply for repairing the 
tissues of the body is the food which we eat. To convert the 
food into blood, the body is provided with the digestive system, 
consisting of the mouth, teeth, tongue, oesophagus or gullet, 
stomach, and the intestines. Each of these organs is placed 
in a position most convenient to serve its purposes. In con- 
nection with the digestive system are a number of glands, to 
secrete fluids required in the process of digestion. First, the 
salivary glands, which discharge the saliva into the mouth, to 
be mixed with the food as it is ground up by the teeth. After 
this first step in the process of digestion, the food passes along 
the gullet to the stomach, where it is churned up, and at the 
same time mixed with the gastric juice, secreted by glands 
placed in the coats of the stomach. The greyish pulpy mass 
thus produced, called chyme, passes into the intestines, to 
undergo further changes from the action of the intestinal 
juice, the bile from the liver and the fluid secreted by 
the pancreas. The chemical and vital changes which have 
now taken place have prepared the aliment to mix with the 
blood, and the chyle, as it is now called, is taken up by a 
system of absorbent vessels and passes by a duct called the 
thoracic duct, to be emptied into the great volume of blood 


circulating through the system. The nutritious fluid thus 
added to the blood is gradually developed, and has imparted 
to it the vital properties of the blood, and in due time is in a 
fit state to become food for the tissues or to repair the loss 
caused by the death of microscopical cells. 

11. The Circulatory System. This system carries the 
blood back and forth from the heart to every part of the 
body. It consists of the heart, arteries and veins, and hair- 
like canals called capillaries. A second circulatory system 
carries the blood to and from the lungs to the heart. The 
first, or long circuit, is to feed the tissues and remove the 
worn-out material ; the second, or short circuit, through the 
lungs, is to cast out of the system the products of decay and 
death of tissue, and to receive from the air taken into the 
lungs the oxygen without which life cannot exist. 

12. The Respiratory System. More immediately neces- 
sary for life than the circulation is the process of breathing, 
and the two lungs, which in the lower animals are called the 
lights, occupy a large space in the upper part of the body, 
called the thorax. The bronchial tubes, which extend from 
the trachea, or windpipe, to the inner surfaces of the lungs, 
communicate with the external air through the nose. 

13. The Excretory System. Besides the lungs, there 
are other organs, whose function it is to carry out of the 
system various elements not only useless to sustain the body, 
but more or less injurious to the process of life. These are 
the intestines, the kidneys, and the skin. 

14. Alcohol, Tobacco, etc. This brief survey of the 
human body, and the manner in which the functions of life 
are carried on, will prepare us to consider more particularly 
the structure of the various tissues and organs ; how they are 
nourished and sustained, and what are the requirements to 
keep the body in health. We will endeavor to show that 
perfect health depends upon the care we give the body, the 


regularity with which we attend to its many needs, and the 
judgment we exercise in taking into the system only that 
which is pure and wholesome, and avoiding those things 
which tend to irritate, to injure and to destroy. 

One of the most destructive agents man has brought into 
use is ALCOHOL. Owing to its use as a beverage, it has become 
a powerful evil. Taken into the system regularly, it becomes 
an overpowering enemy. Alcohol may be presented in many 
different forms.. There are a large number of intoxicating 
beverages, each of which is supposed to possess some special 
virtue. They are all alike seductive, and are taken for the 
alcohol they contain Some have only a small amount of 
alcohol in them, and are classed as mild drinks Others are 
nearly one-half alcohol, and are called strong drinks. No 
matter in what form it is taken, we will find in the succeeding 
chapters of this book, that every tissue and every organ of the 
body is influenced bv its use. We are also convinced that 
further evidence will not be needed to show that perfect 
health cannot be hoped for when alcohol is taken in ever so 
small a quantity. 

TOBACCO, though "the lesser evil of the two," is, perhaps, 
more universally used than alcohol ; and is, doubtless, respon- 
sible for many a headache, a deranged stomach, a weak heart, 
or a stunted body. Like alcohol, it is also presented in many 
different forms. Some draw it into the nose, as snuff; others 
take it into the mouth, to chew; while others, again, smoke it, 
either in the form of a cigarette, a cigar, or in a pipe. Taken 
in any form, it is more or less distasteful to those about us 
who do not use it, while some of the modes of taking tobacco 
deserve strong condemnation. 

The evil effects of OPIUM are not to be less dreaded than 
those of alcohol. We shall find that, while it is a useful drug 
in the hands of a careful physician, it is too powerful c, one to 
be used indifferently. The opium eater is as much to be 
pitied as the drunkard. 




I. The Number Of Bones. There are two hundred and 
six bones in the human body at maturity. They may b?. 
arranged as follows (see Fig. 1) : 

I. The bones of the Head : 

1. Brain case (Cranium) . . .(,&). 8 

2. Face 14 

3. Ears 6 

II. The bones of the Trunk : 

1. Spinal column (Vertebra) . . . (c, e) . 26 

2. Ribs 24 

3. Hip bones (Innominata) . . (s) . 2 

4. Breast bone (Sternum) . . . (d) . 1 

5. Tongue bone (Hyoid) . . . " . .1 
III. The bones of the Upper Extremity : Each 

1. Shoulder (Scapula and Clavicle) . (u) . 2 

2. Arm (Humerus) . . . (t) . 1 

3. Forearm ( Ulna and Radius) . . (/, g) . 2 

4. Wrist (Carpal) (h) . 8 

5. Palm (Metacarpal) . . . (i) . 5 

6. Fingers (Phalanges) . . . (k) . 14 
IT. The bones of the Lower Extremity : Each 

1. Thigh (Femur) (r) . 1 

2. Knee-pan (Patella) . . . (q) . I 

3. Leg (Tibia and Fibula) . . . (I, m) . 2 

4. Ankle (Tarsal) (n) . 7 

5. Instep (Metatarsal) . . . . (o) . 5 

6. Toes (Phalanges) . . . (p) . 14 
We may also speak of bones as 

Long The bones of the arms, legs, etc. 
Short The bones of the fingers, toes, etc. 
Flat The skull, shoulder blade, etc. 
Irregular Hip bones, heel bones, etc. 



2. Uses. The bones serve various purposes in the differ- 
ent parts of the body. The skull incases and protects the 
brain. The spinal column, with its numerous processes, pro- 
tects the spinal cord within, while at the same time affording 
convenient points for muscular attachment. So also the bones 
of the chest, while formed in a great measure to protect the 
important organs within, give attachment to muscles. It is 
the same with regard to the lower bones 
of the trunk, namely, the hips or pelvic 
bones. The bones of the arm form a most 
important member of the body. They are 
so shaped that the muscles lying upon them 
afford a variety and freedom of movement 
to the arm and hand not found in any other 
part of the body. The bones of the lower 
extremity are mainly for the purpose of 
sustaining the v body in the erect position, 
and of moving it from place to place. 

3. Composition of Bone. Healthy 
bone in a state of nature consists of an 
organic or animal matter blended with an 
inorganic or earthy portion, whereby elas- 
ticity and firmness are obtained. In youth 
Fm. 2. The Fibula, ^ ^ s about equally composed of animal and 
or outer bone of the leg, mineral matter, in middle life it is about 

tied in a knot, after the , , 

hard mineral matter ha8 One P art animal to tw P arts mineral, and 

been dissolved out by in old age the mineral matter is largely in 
excess. Consequently, in the young the 
bone may be considerably bent by external force without 
breaking, and, like a green stick, will rebound when the 
force is removed. On the contrary, in old age any force 
sufficiently great to bend the bone will cause a fracture; 
while in middle life the proportion of animal and mineral 



matter is such as to allow sufficient flexibility and secure 
strength to enable man to fulfil the duties of life. 

If a bone be exposed to the action of certain acids weak 
muriatic acid, for instance the mineral matter will be dis- 
solved, and the bone, although retaining its normal size and 
shape, will become flexible like a rubber 
tube. On the other hand, if a bone be 
placed in the fire, the animal matter will 
disappear, leaving the bone light in weight 
and easily crumbled into powder. 

4. Ossifying Bone. In the child at 

birth the entire framework is made of car- 
tilage or gristle, and the gradual conversion 
into bone is called ossification. This process 
commences in the middle of the bone, and 
gradually extends to the borders. Some- 
times there are two or more points of ossifi- 
cation, in which case the several growing 
areas of bone approach each other and 
coalesce, the place of the union being 
marked by a line (see skull, page 21). 

5. The Structure of Bone. The con- 
sistence of bone varies, according to its use 
and according to its mode of construction. 
In every instance there is manifested infinite 
wisdom in securing strength without unne- 
cessary bulk. 

In a fresh long bone, sawn lengthwise, it 
is seen that the shaft is made up of two 
portions, the outer or cortical portion, and length ' 
the inner or spongy portion. The outer portion is hard and 
firm, and is covered by a dense fibrous membrane closely 
attached, and through which blood is supplied to the bone. 
This is called the periosteum. 

FIG. 3. The Thigh- 
Bone, or Femur, sawn 


The spongy portion forms the bulk of the shaft, and at 
either extremity makes an expansion to form joint surface. 
This spongy tissue consists of elongated bony cells, and the 
walls of the cells give lightness and strength, while the tiny 
channels afford a passage for the nutrient fluid to pass. In 
the interior of the bone is lodged the marrow, composed of 
fat and numerous blood-vessels, for supplying the central por- 
tion of the bone with nourishment. The blood-vessels within 
the bone are a continuation and subdivision of an artery, 
which enters the bone through a small opening seen in all 
bones, and called the nutrient foramen. 

FIG. 4. A thin slice of bone highly magnified, showing little central canals for the 
blood-vessels, and tiny tubes for the passage of nutriment to the bone tissue. The 
black specks are little cavities in the bone. 

If we examine a thin slice of bone under the microscope, 
we find it is mapped out into a number of circular districts, 
and in the centre of each district is a small canal for the 
passage of a minute blood-vessel, These canals do not run 
with 4ach ether, or with the ahftft of the bone. 


open into the marrow, and receive their blood-vessels from it, 
while others open on the surface beneath the periosteum, and 
admit blood-vessels. 

Each canal is the centre of a complete system of blood 
supply to the district. Little tubes run outwards, like spokes 
from a wheel, communicating with each other and with numer- 
ous other cavities (seen in Fig. 4, as black specks) in such a 
way as to carry the blood to every part of the bone. 

6. Growth and Repair of Bone. The system of blood 
supply in the bone, so admirable in its arrangement, furnishes 
the osseous structure with nutriment for growth and develop- 
ment ; also, for the repair of tissue, as the bone is subject to 
the same continual decay and death of the minute cells as 
are the other tissues, and ordinary repair is constantly being 

7. Healing of Broken Bone. When the bono is broken, 
these vessels -supply the material necessary for repair or union 
of the fragments. The plasma of the blood is poured out 
upon and around the fractured ends, at first gluing them, 
together, arid holding them firm until new bone cells are 
thrown out. Jn this way the two ends are knit together, an(x 
soon the bone becomes as strong as before it was broken. 
But in order that this work of nature may properly proceed, 
the fractured bone must be kept at rest and the adjoining 
muscles relaxed. This is best done by placing the limb in 
an easy position and applying suitable splints. When, from 
carelessness of the patient or uneasiness 'on his part, the 
broken bone is not kept in a state of repose, nature attempts 
to fix the part by pouring out a more copious quantity of 
plasma. This extra material, callus, as it is called, makes the 
bone at the seat of fracture much larger. In time, however, 
this will be absorbed. 

8. Effects of Alcohol on Growth of Bone. First 

amongst the signs of the evil effects of alcohol, wha taken to 


excess, is a lack of physical development. In many cases the 
liquor habit dates from childhood. Continuing in this habit, 
the child's growth is frequently slow and imperfect, and he 
reaches manhood small in stature and stunted in body and 

In France, amongst the peasants regularly drafted for the 
army, it is noticed that those who drink from childhood fall 
below the military standard, while those who do not drink 
develop normally. It is observed that rejections from mili- 
tary service increase as drunkenness increases. 

9. Effects of Alcohol on Broken Bone. A fracture 
seldom heals as rapidly and as firmly in a drunkard as in a 
sober person. Nature tries to do her work as faithfully in 
the one as in the other ; but in the one case she has healthy 
material to build from, and is not likely to fail. In the 
other case, the material is poisoned with alcohol ; perhaps 
the general system is in an irritable condition or is greatly 
reduced, and it is not surprising that a faulty union some- 
times takes place. The continued uneasiness met with in 
cases of delirium tremens, and in inebriates generally, is suffi- 
cient to overcome all efforts of nature to keep the broken 
ends of bone steady and in close contact. As a result, union 
is often very much delayed, and when it does take place it 
will very likely be faulty. This is not all. Union some- 
times fails to take place; further operation becomes necessary, 
the patient runs down rapidly, and the result is often most 

The careful surgeon now recognizes the necessity for re- 
stricting the use of stimulants in cases of fractured bones, 
especially in persons of full habit. A moderate diet, with- 
out stimulants, promotes a restful condition of the system, 
and avoids disturbances of digestion which are apt to arise 
from want of exercise. 


FlG. 5. The Skull. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, bones of the skull proper ; 6, upper jaw; 
7, cheek bone ; 8, lachrymal bone ; 9, nasal bone ; 10, lower jaw. 

10. The Skull. The bones of the skull are so constructed 
as to make an admirable case for enclosing the brain. It also 
lodges and protects the organs of special sense, namely, sight, 
smell, taste and hearing. When the head receives a severe 
blow, unless it is very direct, the rounded shape causes the 
weapon to glance off without injury to the brain itself. Even 
a bullet may be turned from its course, and pass around the 
skull without penetrating the bone. Besides being round, 
the skull affords a further protection to the brain by being 
made up of an outer and inner table of hard, firm bone, 
closely united by a spongy layer. In the more exposed parts 
these plates are thickened and the outer layer is considerably 
separated from the inner, so that blows severe enough to 
break the outer may not injure the inner or disturb the brain, 
spongy packing also helps to deaden the blow. 



In infancy, the skull is made up of several distinct bones. 
The child, when learning to walk, stumbles about and bumps 
his head without doing serious harm, the bones being more 
elastic and freer to move. As the brain enlarges, these bones 
grow, and when fully formed they are dovetailed into each 
other, something after the manner in which 
a carpenter joins his pieces in making a 
box. The only bone which remains separate 
is the lower jaw. 

There are a number of small openings in 
the skull for the passage of nerves and ves- 
sels. There is one large one at the under 
part or base of the skull, through which 
the spinal cord is connected with the brain. 

11. The Bones of the Trunk. In 
classifying the bones, we mentioned one 
belonging to the trunk, called the hyoid. 
This is a small bone shaped like a much 
l>ent bo.w with the arch in front, and placed 
high up in the neck, to support the tongue 
and give a firm point of attachment to its 
numerous muscles. In addition to this bone, 
the trunk comprises the bones of the spine, 
the ribs, the breastbone, and two very irreg- 
ular bones which extend forward from the 
base of the spinal column, spreading out on 
the sides to form the hips, and meeting 
again in the front of the body. They form, 
with the spine, a complete basin, called the 
pelvis. On the lower and under surface of 
the hip bone is a deep socket, for the head 
of the large bone of the thigh. 

12. The Spine. Of all the wonderful 
FIG. 6. Th Spine, arrangements of bones in the human frame, 


that of the spine is the most striking. It is firm, and yet 
elastic. It is capable of carrying a great weight, and yet 
easily bent in any direction. It is made up of a number of 
separate bones, and yet in its centre there is formed a perfect 
canal throughout nearly its whole length, just as a continuous 
canal is formed by placing a number of spools evenly one 
upon another. The main portion of the spine consists of 
twenty-four separate and distinct pieces, and these rest upon 
one large solid mass of bone called the sacrum. In early 
life, the five bones which form the sacrum are separate; so 
also are the four small bones beneath these, which in. adult 
life unite and form one bone. In infancy there are, there- 
fore, thirty-three bones in the spine, and in the adult only 

The individual bone is called a vertebra, hence the whole 
is sometimes called the vertfil>ral column. Kach separate 
vertebra consists of a solid "piece of bone called the body, 
and projections (processes) running outwards and backwards. 
Those running backwards incline towards each other and soon 
unite, so as to form the canal for the spinal cord. It then 
continues backwards for varying lengths at different parts of 
the spine, and is called the spinous process. This is why the 
vertebral column is sometimes called the spine. These are 
the various projections of bone we feel immediately under the 
skin, from the back of the neck downwards. The other pro- 
jections run out sidewise, and are for attachment of long, 
slender muscles to strengthen the whole column, very much 
in the same way as ropes strengthen and support the masts 
of a ship. 

The bodies of the vertebrae are placed one upon another, 
with a layer of elastic cartilage between, as bricks are placed 
one above another, with mortar between. They are not 
cemented firmly together, as is the case in a brick wall ; the 
cartilage, being elastic like rubber, allows the bones to bend 


upon each other in all directions. If we keep the spine bent 
a long time, these cushions will not readily resume their 
proper shape, and in this way people become stooped, espe- 
cially in old age, when the cartilage is less elastic. In a 
young person it is sufficiently yielding to make nearly an 
inch difference in the height between rising in the morning 
and at bedtime, after standing upright all day. 

A side view of the spinal column shows it to be curved. 
In the neck it bends a little forward. Just below this it is 
bowed backwards. This increases the capacity of the chest. 
Then bending forward, it affords an advantageous resting- 
place for important organs in the abdomen, and gives behind 
favorable points of attachment to large muscles extending to 
the legs. The large wedge-shaped part of the spine, filling in 
the space between the hip bones behind, forms a well-marked 
curve backward and then forward, and secures a perfect 
resting-place for the organs contained within. This double 
curving of the spine tends also to disperse the force of a fall. 
These gentle curves have besides the effect of giving to the 
body a pleasing and graceful outline, but if they are much 
increased it becomes a deformity. In rickets, for example, 
the bones of the spine are softened. The weight of the body, 
especially if the child is kept standing a great deal, presses 
the soft bones closer together in front, and increases the 
curve at the back. 

The various bones of the spinal column fit so nicely into 
each other, and are bound together so firmly by strong liga- 
ments, that fractures and dislocations are very rare. The 
head moves freely backward and forward as it rocks upon the 
first bone of the spine. It turns from side to side around 
a pivot in the second bone, carrying with it the first. We 
bend the spine in some cases almost double, as may be seen 
in the performances of an athlete, and yet there is no dis- 
placement nor injury to the delicate cord within. 



13. The Walls of the Thorax. The cavity of the 
chest contains the heart, lungs, and larger blood-vessels. It 
is cone-shaped, with the apex at the top. The walls consist 
of bone, muscle and elastic cartilage. Behind is the strong 
spinal column. In front, extending from the neck to the pit 
of the stoinachj^ |sjbhe_ .breast hnn Aj nr.. F /nimn UM. The floor 
or base of the cone is formed by a broad, flat muscle, the 
diaphragm^ which strejbchesjEicrass the body, and divides the 
thoracic or chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. 

U. The Ribs. The 
greater portion of the chest 
walls is formed by the ribs. 
They are twenty-four in 
number, twelve on each 
side. They do not lie close 
to one another, the space 
between being occupied by 
muscles running obliquely 
to and fro. These mus- 
cles assist in expanding the 
chest. Thejqbs are firmly 
attached behind to* the spi- 
nal column. They curve 
forward, and are joined to 
the sternum by elastic car- 
tilage. Those at the 
are short, with a greater curve ; at the middle of the chest 
the ribs are long and bowed. The_-4wtr"tower ribs on each 
side have no attachment in front, and are hence called the 
floating ribs. The great function of the chest walls, after 
giving protection to important organs within, is to expand 
and contract, thus increasing and diminishing the capacity 
of the chest, and thereby carrying on the life-long process 
of breathing. The variation of space in the cavity is effected 

FIG. 7. The Ribs and Sternum. 


not only by the ribs and the rib (intercostal) muscles, but 
by the diaphragm, which, in contracting, extends the cavity 
downwards. In case of the upper portion of the walls of 
the chest not acting, as in tight lacing a habit so much 
indulged in by the lady of the period, that the chest is 
even smallest where it should be the largest the diaphragm 
descends and crowds the organs low down into the pelvis. 
Such persons are doing themselves a double injury. In the 
first place, tight lacing is productive of small, weak lungs; 
and secondly, the lower organs in the abdomen are so 
pressed upon that they perform their functions with diffi- 
culty, and are often in a constant state of congestion from 
want of freedom in the return of the blood to the heart. 

15. The Walls of the Abdomen. The lower portion of 

the trunk is bounded above by the diaphragm, the partition 
which separates the trunk space into two cavities : below by 
the pelvis, behind by the spine, and in front by a muscular 
wall. The floating ribs occupy a small portion of this space 
at the top and on each side. The bony protection to the 
contents of the cavity is limited in front, excepting when the 
body is bent forward. The greater part of the front wall 
is made up of flat tendons and mutcOes, in order that we 
may have more freedom in bending. If the ribs extended 
down to meet the bones below, we should be very stiff 
and rigid in our movements. We would be obliged to sit 
or stand, like the warriors of old when they donned their 
steel coats of armor. 

The cavity of the abdomen contains the liver, stomach, 
intestines, kidneys and other organs. 

16. The Upper Extremities. The arms are so placed 
at the upper and outer part of the chest as to give them an 
extensive sweep over the body. The arm is the member 
above all others which contributes to man's welfare, supplies 
the wants of his body, gives him a means of defence, and by 


which he performs many of the duties of life. By this mem- 
ber the blacksmith wields his heavy hammer, to fashion with 
precision the piece of iron; and by it the musician, with 
exquisite skill, produces upon his instrument the finest and 
loftiest notes of melody. 

17. The Scapula and Clavicle. The arm is attached 
to the body by a flat, triangular bone, the scapula or shoulder 
blade, which rests upon the ribs on the back part of the 
thorax, and is held to the side by a layer of muscles, thus 
giving freedom of motion to the whole shoulder. The apex of 
the scapula is marked by a pear-shaped concavity, which 
forms with the upper end of the arm bone the shoulder joint. 
This joint inclines somewhat forward, and is retained in posi- 
tion by an ^/-shaped bone, the clavicle, or collar bone, which 
extends from the shoulder blade inward to the breast bone, 
and is easily seen on the uncovered neck. 

18. Number of Bones in the Upper Extremity. In 

addition to the bones which attach the upper extremity to 
the body, the arm has thirty 1 Mines; one in the upper arm, 
called the humerns ; two in the forearm, the ulna and radius, 
lying side by side; eight in the wrist, the carpus ; five bones 
form the hand, the metacarpus; and fourteen make up the 
thumb and fingers, the phalanges. 

19. The Shoulder. At the shoulder we have a good 
example of what is called a ball and socket joint, and the 
degree of motion is here much greater than in any other part 
of the body. Almost every inch of the surface of the body 
can be reached by the fingers. To permit of such free motion, 
the socket of this joint is quite shallow, and its articulating 
surface limited, while the rounded head of the humerus has a 
large articulating surface. Dislocations more frequently take 
place in this joint than elsewhere, notwithstanding the pro- 
vision existing to Keep i* **i place by ligaments and muscles. 



This is due to the shallowness of the joint, to its exposed 
position, and to the varied functions of the arm. 

20. The Elbow. The elbow presents the best instance 
of the forward and backward movements of a hinge. It is 
formed by the lower end of the humerus and the upper ends 
of the ulna and radius. The arm bone at its lower extremity 
is wide and flat, while at its very end is a rounded, smooth 
surface, which fits into a deep notch in the ulna. The radius 
is quite small at this end, and forms very little of the elbow 
joint. With its smooth head it rolls against the side of the 
ulna as we turn the palm of the hand upward or downward. 

FIG. 8. The Wrist Joint. 

21. The Wrist. When we come to the wrist, we find the 
relative size of the two bones is changed. Here the ulna is 
quite small, and rolls in a similar way against the side of the 
radius when the hand is turned. The end of the radius is 
sufficiently large to form the whole upper surface of the wrist 
joint. The bones of the wrist are small and mostly wedge- 
shaped. They are arranged in two rows of four bones each, 
and are so placed as to form a gentle curve when the wrist is 
bent, giving it a graceful outline, instead of a sharp angle, as 
in the ordinary hinge joint. 

22. The Hand. In the hand, including the thumb and 
fingers, we see displayed the most perfect and complete mech- 


anism. Its wonders have been the subject of frequent admir- 
ation, not only of the anatomist, but as well of many writers 
and students in the higher walks of literature and art. In a 
thousand ways the hand, in the daily course of life, serves the 
body with quickness and precision; now with the delicate 
touch of educated skill, then with the bold unerring stroke ; 
now to bring to its use all that contributes to man's comfort 
and welfare, then to put away whatever may be dangerous 
or offensive to the body j now to grasp the weapon of defence 
or warfare, then to be reared aloft in mute adoration or in 

FIG. 9. The Bones of the Hand and the Wrist. 

inexpressible despair. The hand in itself is a harp of a 
thousand strings. 

23. The Metacarpal Bones^ Four of these bones lie 
parallel, and form the framework upon which we have in 
front the palm of the hand. The fifth stands out slightly, to 
form the thumb. It has a much freer movement than the 
others, and is covered with muscles, forming the ball of the 

24. The Phalanges. The bones of the thumb, two in 
number, and those of the fingers, three to each, are called the 
phalanges. The forefinger, from its free position and relation- 


ship with the thumb, is the most useful and important of the 
fingers. The fingers are of unequal lengths. The longest is 
called the middle finger ; the next in length is the ring finger, 
which is only slightly longer than the fore or index finger, 
while the little finger is the shortest. When the fingers are 
flexed to form the fist, the tips are almost on an even line. 
The number of hinge joints in the fingers, together with the 
additional side motion in the joints which attach the fingers 
to the hand, gives great freedom of motion to this member. 

25. The Lower Extremities. While the lower limbs 
have not the many uses of the upper, they perform the 
distinguishing functions of sustaining the body in the erect 
position, and of moving it from place to place at the com- 
mand of the will. 

26. Number of Bones in the Lower Extremities. 

Tn each lower extremity there are thirty bones. In the thigh 
there is one bone, the femur ; one in front of the knee joint, 
called the knee cap, knoo pan, or patella; two in the leg, 
cot-responding to the two in the forearm, and named tV 
tibia and fibula ; seven in the ankle, the tarsal bones ; five 
in the instep, the metatarsal, and fourteen in the toes, the 

27. The Femur. The thigh bone is the longest and 
strongest bone in the body. The shaft of this bone is round, 
like the handle of a club, and inclines towards its fellow at 
the knee. It is crowned at the upper end by a head and 
neck. The neck forms an angle with the shaft, like the turn 
on a walking-cane, so as to bring the head into the deep 
socket in the pelvic bone. The upper half of this ball-like 
head is covered with cartilage, and fits accurately into the 
socket, forming a ball and socket joint, much like the one at 
the shoulder, but deeper and stronger, though more limited 
in its movements, The head of the bone is held in place 
by ttrong ligaments attached around the neck. It la also 


steadied or swung in the cavity by a strong ligament running 
up from the base of the cavity to the summit of the head, 
which holds it in place, and prevents jars and dislocations. 
Some of the muscles, also, which move the thigh bone pass 
over this joint, and help to keep it in place. 

28. The Knee. The lower end of the thigh bone is so 
large as really to suggest the idea of a war-club. Indeed, 
some savage tribes use the thigh bone as a weapon of war. 

FIG. 10. The Mechanism of the Hip Joint. 

The large end of this bone rests upon the broad, flat end of 
the shin bone, forming the knee joint. This hinge joint is 
protected in front by a flat three-sided bone, the patella, or 
knee-pan. Although the knee is greatly exposed, the broad 
joint surface, with its strong ligaments and tendons, enables 
it to resist violence, and dislocation does not frequently 
happen. Indeed, fracture of one o the bones is more likely 
to occur. 


29. The Ankle. This is also a hinge joint, and is formed 
by the lower ends of the two bones of the leg clasping be- 
tween them, as sugar-tongs clasp a piece of sugar, the highest 
bone of the arch of the foot. The larger of the two leg bones 
is called the tibia, or shin bone. It has a sharp border down 
the front, which, being covered only by skin, is very sensitive 
to the touch, as every child knows who bruises his shins. 

FIG. 11. The Bones of the Foot and the Ankle. 

Lower down, this bone forms the inner ankle bone. The 
fibula, or splint bone, is a long, slender bone lying along 
the outside of the leg, and ends below in what is called the 
outer ankle. 

30. The Foot. While there are eight carpal bones at the 
wrist, there are but seven bones at the ankle, called the tarsal 
bones. They are very irregular, and vary much in size, the 


largest being the heel bone. As in the hand there are five 
metacarpal bones, so in the foot there are five metatarsal 
bones. They lie side by side, the inner one not being separ- 
ated, as in the hand. 

31. The Toes. There are two phalanges in the great toe 
and three in each of the others, as in the hand, but they are 
smaller in size and more limited in their movements. It 
astonishes us sometimes, however, to see the extent of motion 
training will give to the toes. People born without arms, 
or who have lost them by accident, have been taught to 
carve, write, and even to paint with their toes. The bonete of 
the foot, as a whole, are less movable than those of the hand. 
In its construction the foot is better adapted for bearing the 
weight of the body than for varied movements. If a straight 
line be drawn from the lowest point of the heel bone to the 
ball of the great toe, it will be seen that a bony arch is 
formed, the top of which supports the body. It is by this 
arrangement we secure in walking the light, springy step, 
while in running, leaping or jumping, this elastic curved 
spring prevents any jarring of the body, and by the help of 
the many cushions, pads and ligaments we have already 
alluded to, carries the brain at the summit of this bodily 
structure almost without a tremor. 

In animals whose habit of life it is to bound after their 
prey, in addition to this arching of the foot, there is placed 
under each toe a soft cushion or pad, to further break the 
shock they would otherwise receive. Examine the cat's paw. 
You will find it a good example of what we have mentioned 

32. The Joints. We have mentioned a number of the 
joints, and shown how necessary they are for the many move- 
ments of the body, and for the performance of the various 
duties man has to fulfil. We have noticed also that they 
vary in their extent of motion, according to the use for which 




they are intended. Some joints allow of motion in every 
direction, for example, the shoulder joint; others have only 
a to-and-f ro motion, like the elbow while others again have 

but little motion, as, for 
instance, the slight move- 
ment) of each individual 
spine upon its next neigh- 
bor. Let us examine the 
construction of a joint. 

Fig. 12 represents the 
knee after the skin and 
fat have been removed. 
The ends of the bones 
coming together to form a 
joint are covered with car- 
tilage, more or less elastic, 
according to its thickness. 
This acts, in a measure, 
like a buffer, to arrest jara 
in jumping or in falling. 
The cartilage, in turn, is 
covered by a smooth lining, 
the synovial membrane, 
which is folded over the 
inner surface of the joint 
from one bone to the other, 
and forms a closed sac. 
Within the sac is a small 
quantity of fluid, the syno- 
via, secreted by the membrane. This fluid lubricates the 
joint, like oil in machinery, and promotes free motion with- 
out friction. Outside this is a strong cap, holding the bones 
together. There are also extra bands, like bands of ribbon, 
stretching from one bone to another. Still outside all this 

FIG. 12. The Right Knee Joint, showing how 
. firmly it is bound about by ligaments. 


are the tendons of the muscles which move the limb, and 
filling in and rounding off the joint there is always a certain 
amount of cellular tissue and fat. Last of all, the skin. 

33. Care of the Body. The degree of perfection with 
which growth and development from infancy to mature age 
take place, depends upon the care and attention the child 
receives. The infant is helpless. It is unable to walk. Its 
head is out of proportion to the rest of the body, its spinal 
column is almost straight, and its legs are relatively short. 
Soon it creeps about on all-fours, and gradually, as growth 
proceeds, changes of a distinguishing kind take place, and 
when adult age is reached, the full-grown man walks with his 
head evenly balanced on the spinal column, supported only by 
his lower limbs, while these in turn rest upon the arched 
instep and broad soles of the feet. 

During infancy, suitable food must be provided, to enable 
nature to convert the gristly framework into bone. For this 
purpose milk alone is sufficient for many months. In child- 
hood some restraint will be necessary, to avoid the taking of 
those things which tend to poison the system and stunt the 
growth of the body. 

The waking hours of a child, when in health, are spent in 
constant motion of body and limb. This exercise is necessary 
to promote the growth of bone and muscle. Equally neces- 
sary are the long periods of sleep the healthy child will take 
daily, in order that the brain may rest and develop. As the 
child gains power over its legs, it will begin its efforts to 
stand and walk ; but it should not be helped or encouraged 
to do so too early. It should be allowed to " find its legs," 
and not be put upon them before they are strong enough to 
bear the weight of the body. Like a green twig, the soft 
bones of the leg may bend, and cause " bow legs," so often 
met with. Children should also be watched in their habits 
of sitting. When weary, they may slide down into the seat, 



or incline to one side or the other, or bend over too much 
when reading, writing, or at other work. Round shoulders 
and curved spines are too frequently the outcome of children 

FIG. 13. Adjustable Seat and Desk, the latter with sliding top. 

being allowed to fall into such positions as these. Very % often 
it is owing to faulty desks. If a desk is too low, it causes a 
forward stoop. If too high, the shoulder is likely to be too 



much elevated, causing a side curve to the spine. Desks 
should be regulated according to the size of the pupil. The 
teacher should remember that the school period is also the 
growing period of a child's life, and make frequent changes in 
the seating of his pupils. These changes can be most readily 
made by having adjustable seats and desks, as in Fig. 13. 

The seat M and desk BE are each supported on a sliding 
pin F, which works in a socket G. The seat and desk can 
thus be raised or lowered, according to the size of the pupil, 
and may be fixed at any height by the set screw H. The 
foot- rest / may be raised or lowered in a similar manner. 
The top of the desk is attached to the movable rest C, the 
hinge at D allowing the desk to slide forward to A, and 
giving the child room to stand immediately in front of his 

It is astonishing how easily the soft and gristly bones of a 
child bend, and even grow out of place. Long continued 
strain or pressure is sure to have this effect. We have all 
heard how Chinese women bind the feet of the baby girl 
with strong bands, to prevent them from growing. These 
poor girls, when grown into women, are not able to move 
about with ease and comfort. This foolish custom is common 
in China, because it is thought low-bred for women to be 
useful and have natural feet. 

Let us compare this with what 
we see daily amongst our own peo- 
ple. Is it not equally as incon- 
sistent for us to wear tight and 
high-heeled boots and shoes because 
it is the fashion ? They throw the 
weight of the body forward, and 
force the foot down on the toes. 
This has the tendency not only to 
crowd the toes out of shape, but pie. 15. Diatorted Foot. 

FIG. 14. Natural Shape of 
the Foot. 


to cause corns, bunions, ingrowing nails and swollen joints. 
It also makes the natural gait stiff and awkward. Children 
should wear comfortably fitting boots or shoes, with broad 
toes and low, wide heels. 

34. Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco on the whole 
Framework. Individuals vary in form and height, accord- 
ing to the shape and length of the various bones. The size of 
the body depends upon the size of the framework. It is not 
wise to risk our chances to become well developed and manly 
in appearance, by indulging in habits that are injurious while 
young. Neither the drinking of alcohol in any of its many 
forms, nor the using of tobacco in any way, is a manly act, 
nor does either help in any sense to promote the growth and 
development of our bodies. 

It has often been observed that children of intemperate 
parents frequently fail to develop into manhood or woman- 
hood. They may not be deformed, but their growth is 
arrested, and they remain small in body and infantile in 
character. One physician reports a child five years of age, 
who measured only two feet three inches, and weighed 
twenty-two pounds ; and he says further, that he has known 
such children to live to twenty and over, and still remain 
permanent infants. Such are examples of a species of degen- 
eracy, and are evidences of the visiting of the sins of the 
fathers upon the children, which may extend even unto the 
third and fourth generations. 



1. The Structure of Muscles. The lean meat of the 
dead animal, as seen cut up in a butcher's stall, or when 
cooked and brought on the table for dinner, is what we call 
muscle. In a joint or roast of beef there are several muscles. 
Each is surrounded by a delicate, thin membrane. This 
membrane or tissue is loosely attached, and serves to hold 
the muscle together and to separate 

it from neighboring ones. From its 
inner surface this membrane sends 
off partitions, which divide the 
muscle into several bundles. The 
larger bundles are divided into sec- 
ondary ones by a finer membrane, 
and these are again divided into 
fibres. Looked at under the micro- 
scope, it is discovered that even 
these fine fibres are made up of a 
number of very fine threads or 
fibrils, and that each fibril is sim- 
ply a row of cells, like a string of 
fine beads. This gives the fibril a striped appearance. 

2. How Muscles Work. A muscle has the power of 
contracting and relaxing. Each little fibre, under nerve in- 
fluence, can be made to draw itself together, becoming shorter 
and thicker, and this change taking place almost at the same 
time amongst the thousands of fibres in a muscle, the result is 
that, instead of lying loosely extended along the limb, the 

FIG. 16. Portions of Muscular 
Fibre highly magnified. 


muscle is drawn up into a large solid lump at its middle. 
Now, if_onejjen^_j8-Amly_a.ttached to a bone, its origin, and 
the other to a strong tendon which passes down to "the bone 
below, its, in^^rfaon. the lower bone will necessarily be drawn 

towards the upper. This 
may be understood by 
bending the elbow with 
the arm bare. As the 
body of the biceps mus- 
cle swells out and be- 
comes hard and firm, 
the forearm is drawn 
up. When the nerve 
influence is withdrawn, 

the muscle relaxes and 
Fio. 17.-Biceps and Triceps Muscles. 

3. Arrangement of Muscles. The muscles are usually 
arranged in groups, and these have opposing groups on the 
opposite side of the limb. Take, for example, the leg. One 
set of muscles bends the knee, so that the leg is flexed upon 
the thigh. These are called flexors. Another set brings the 
leg forward, and extends it out until it is in a line with the 
thigh. These are. called extensors. It is by this nice adjust- 
ment of opposing systems of muscles throughout the body 
that we are able to stand erect and to move about with ease 
and comfort. 

This even action of the many pairs of muscles all over the 
body also maintains its symmetry. If one muscle or group of 
muscles acts more strongly than the opposite, the limb is 
twisted. This is the case in the deformity known as club- 
foot. The foot may be drawn outward by the muscles on the 
outside of the leg acting more strongly than those on the 
inside, or it may be drawn inward if the inner muscles are 
stronger than the outer. In the same way the spine mav 


be pulled over or curved to one side by tire muscles of 
that side overcoming those of the other. Club-foot is a 
deformity at birth, while side curvature of the spine is very 
often the result of sitting daily at an unsuitable desk or 
form at school. 

The proper action of the muscle depends upon the nervous 
supply. If the nerve branch to a muscle be injured or dis- 
eased, its action is interfered with, and the proper balancing 
of a certain pair of muscles lost. Squinting of the eyes may 
be caused in this way. If the nerve on one side is divided or 
seriously injured, the muscle is powerless, and a state of 
paralysis exists. For instance, one side of the face may be 
paralyzed when the muscles of the other side, having no oppo- 
nents to act against them, draw the mouth over to that side, 
and give a distorted appearance to the face. 

Deranged muscular action may be due to injury or disease 
of the nerve centres. There exists a close sympathy not 
only between the end nerves and the nerve centre, but also 
between different and distant parts of the whole system. 
This is seen in various affections. The irritation of a " cut- 
ting" tooth in the infant may cause general convulsions. 
This is reflex or transferred action. The control of the brain 
or spinal cord may be -imperfect, and the muscles contract 
irregularly. Instead of the measured contraction, there is 
the spasmodic action of a group of muscles or of the whole 
body. Sometimes the muscle contracts, and has not the 
power to relax. If it is in the face, we have lock-jaw. This 
is a serious and very often fatal affection, and it is sometimes 
brought about by a very simple injury, such as the prick of a 
pin or a fish-hook in the finger. In chorea, or St. Vitus' 
Dance, certain muscles have ceased to be obedient to the 
will, and persist in irregular contraction, on account of the 
diseased condition of the nervous system ; so likewise in 
shaking palsy. The physician meets with various forms of 


disease due to a want of harmonious action between the 
muscular and nervous systems. 

4. Classification of Muscles. A very large number of 
the muscles of the body are wholly under the control of 
the will. These are called voluntary. A certain number act 
independently of the will. These are called involuntary. As 
instances of each class, the muscles of the extremities are 
voluntary, while those which send the food along the aliment- 
ary canal are involuntary. Certain muscles partake of the 
character of each kind, as the respiratory. One may hold his 
breath for a time by a voluntary act, but breathing proceeds 
without any effort of the will, particularly during sleep. 
Although we have no will-power over the involuntary mus- 
cles, yet they are under the control of the nervous system. 

The voluntary muscles are also known as striped. They 
are so named from their appearance under the microscope, as 
already pointed out. The involuntary are unstriped, being 
made up of slender spindle-shaped cells, which do not appear 
striped under the microscope. They are not attached to bone. 
These muscles are made to act by some stimulus. Food, for 
instance, the taking of which into the mouth and chewing 
is voluntary, when it passes a certain point is beyond the 
v.ontrol of the will. It acts as a stimulus to the involuntary 
muscles of the gullet, and is passed along to the stomach by a 
worm-like motion. 

5. The Levers of the Body. Special reference to a few 
of the voluntary muscles will show the principle upon which 
they cause movement of a limb. The movement is accom- 
plished by leverage. There is a weight to be moved, a, fulcrum 
for the lever, and the application of the power. The limb or 
bone is the weight, the joint is the fulcrum, the power is in 
the muscle. 

The lever of the first kind, where the fulcrum is between 
the weight and the power, is not common, but is seen in the 


nodding of the head, the fulcrum being at the articulation of 
the skull with the first vertebra. The second kind of lever, 
where the weight is between the power and the fulcrum, is 
also uncommon in the body. An instance of this is seen 
when the body stands on the toes. In this case the fulcrum 
is at the point where the front of the foot rests upon the 
ground, the body forms the weight, and the large muscles of 
the calf of the leg constitute the power. In assuming this 
position the calf of the leg becomes hard and firm. The third 
kind of lever, where the power is between the fulcrum and 
the weight, largely prevails in the human body. In this form 
of lever the power is applied at a disadvantage, but it is the 
only kind suitable with a view to economy of space and com- 
pactness of body. This variety of lever is well shown in the 
flexion of joints. The bending of the elbow is by the action 
of the biceps, which is attached above by two heads to the 
scapula, and below to the radius, a short distance from its 
head. The forearm and hand are the weight, which is in- 
creased by any object the hand may hold. The fulcrum is 
'the elbow joint. 

In walking, rowing and swimming most of the voluntary 
-muscles are at work, and with healthy, properly developed 
muscles we see exhibited the perfection of motion, power 
and grace. 

6. Tendons. The strong, flexible, inelastic cords or bands 
which we see playing along the back of the hand when we 
move the fingers, are called tendons. Follow them up the 
limb, and we find they each belong to a muscle. In fact, 
each tendon in the body is a sort of rope, by which the 
muscle pulls upon the part it is intended to move. It is an 
arrangement by which muscles can be placed in unexposed 
positions and nicely grouped, so as to give symmetry to the 
limb. These cords take up less room in the hands and fin- 
gers, for instance, and do away with the bulky appearance 


muscles would give. In passing over exposed parts and over 
joints the tendons occupy less space, and are less sensitive to 
pain when pressed upon. 

FIG. 18. The Muscles and Tendons of the Hand. 

The tendons vary in length, in size and in strength, accord- 
ing to the work they have to do. The longest and strongest 
tendon in the body is the one by which the large muscles of 
the calf of the leg draw upon the heel. Stand upon the toes, 
and this tendon can be distinctly felt above the heel. It is 
called the tendon of Achilles. The large muscles at the back 
part of the thigh are attached by tendons to the bones of the 
leg. These stand out when we flex the knee. They form the 
hamstrings. The tendons of the hand and those of the foot 
can be very distinctly seen as we move the fingers or toes. 
The tendon of the biceps can be easily felt in front of the 
elbow. Some muscles have very short tendons. The large 
triangular muscle fitting over the shoulder, and called the 
deltoid, is attached by a short tendon to the arm bone. 


Occasionally, instead of having a long tendon, the muscle 
itself is long. The tailor muscle, as it is sometimes called, 
extends from the upper part of the hip bone to the inner 
surface of the knee. This is the longest muscle in the body. 

7. Care of Muscles. At all periods of life the well- 
being of the muscular system is most important. To secure 
healthy development of muscles the body generally should 
be in a state of health. The blood supplied to the muscles 
must possess the properties necessary for growth and repair, 
and the products of wear and tear must be promptly removed. 
Close attention should, therefore, be given to food and drink. 
Equally important are pure air and proper exercise. When 
the athlete is under a course of training, strict dietary rules 
are observed, and temperance in both food and drink is 
practised. Perhaps no better argument to show that alco- 
holic drinks are injurious is afforded, than the fact that 
persons training for contests of muscular strength absolutely 
abstain from all such beverages. 

Without exercise the muscle will not only cease to develop, 
but it will degenerate, and finally nearly all its elements will 
be absorbed. We see this waste of muscle, and consequent 
loss of strength, in an arm that has been carried for weeks in 
a sling, owing to a fracture of one of the bones. This change 
is even more marked in a paralyzed limb, where power over 
the muscle is absolutely lost. For a time the muscle retains 
its natural size and condition. Gradually, however, it under- 
goes changes, and in time it wastes away, until the limb is 
almost "skin and bone." 

The incessant action of the little child while awake is 
intended to promote the development of muscle. By this 
constant movement of its limbs it acquires the power to 
carry objects to its mouth, and then to croop, and finally to 
walk. The child should be dressed -with a view to the great- 
est freedom of motion, and every opportunity afforded for 


daily exercise in the open air. This daily exercise should be 
kept up during the whole period of youth from childhood to 
maturity, and unless the child is restrained or kept too closely 
confined in the school-room, its natural inclination is towards 
activity of limb. It is possible for a child, however, to go 
beyond the bounds of healthy exercise. It may be too violent 
or kept up too long for its strength. When a boy comes in 
so tired from play that he does not want any supper, and 
seizes the earliest opportunity to steal off to his bed, that boy 
has done more harm than good by exercise. 

After maturity there are degrees of healthy development. 
A limited amount of exercise, such as is necessary in going 
about the daily duties of life, will keep the muscles healthy 
and in a condition to furnish a moderate degree of strength. 
The careful and constant training of the athlete, on the other 
hand, will greatly increase the size of his muscles and give 
him power to perform almost miraculous feats of strength. 
Look how the daily vigorous exercise of some particular region 
of the muscular system will develop that region. The power- 
ful right arm of the blacksmith is the production of a constant 
wielding of the heavy hammer. 

8. Effects Of Alcohol. We have already referred to the 
fact that those who wish to attain to the greatest perfection 
of muscular strength and agility know that they must abstain 
entirely from alcoholic liquors. Alcohol lessens muscular 
strength exactly in proportion to the amount taken. For a 
very brief period after taking a glass of liquor there may be 
a slight increase in muscular force, but so soon as sufficient 
alcohol is taken to show its constitutional effects, muscular 
force begins to fail ; and as sip after sip or glass after glass is 
taken, the muscles become more and more helpless, and at 
last the inebriated man sinks beneath the table, an example 
of the complete triumph of alcohol over muscular power. 

It now remains for us to speak of certain changes which 


take place in muscular tissue from the use of alcohol. We 
have observed that if a muscle is not exercised it will gradu- 
ally lose its natural character, and if not used at all it will 
finally lose its power to contract. Another important change 
which now and then occurs is a gradual alteration by which 
oily matter finds a place in the fibres of the muscle. The 
muscle loses the power to contract, becomes soft and flabby, 
and is easily torn across. This disease most commonly affects 
the heart, and is known as fatty degeneration. It is only 
one of the many evil effects of alcoholic drinks. The daily 
and oft-repeated use of beer is likely to cause this disease, 
especially when little or no exercise is taken. 

9. Action of Alcohol and Tobacco on Muscular 

Sense. The sensation by which we know the position of our 
limbs, also the force and the extent to which they have been 
moved, is called muscular sense. We use this sense in judging 
of weights. By experience we know how much force to use 
to lift an object, or how to balance ourselves against an out- 
side force. In walking we throw ourselves forward, and to 
prevent falling we carry one leg in front of the other. From 
constant habit we do this without thought. Muscular sense 
enables us to do so. The muscles are educated. But this 
training, this education,- is all upset by indulgence in alcohol. 
The fingers fail to do work they have been trained to do 
almost without mind influence. The voice fails, and the lips 
and tongue fail to utter words clearly ; even walking, the life- 
long habit, is imperfect, and the drunken man staggers. 

Only in a less degree does tobacco weaken the nerve con- 
trol over muscles, causing unsteadiness of hand, relaxation 
of muscles generally, and want of firmness in gait. 




1. The Covering of the Body. The body is everywhere 
covered rand protected by the skin. It varies in thickness, 
according to the use of the part. It is also loose in some 
places arid close-fitting in others. In the fingers and palms 
it fits snugly. The scalp, or skin of the head, is quite loose. 
This makes it a better protection to the brain, for a blow that 
might break the skull sometimes glides off without further 
injury than carrying a portion of the scalp with it. 

2. The Epidermis. There are two layers of skin. The 
outer, called the scarf-skin, cuticle or epidermis, serves as a 
covering to the second layer, the true skin. The epidermis 
protects the delicate little blood-vessels and the net-work of 
sensitive nerves which form a large part of the true skin. 
The sense of touch, which belongs to the true skin, is only 
bearable when the sensation to the nerve is made through 
the outer coat. Strip off this outer covering, and the part 
is sensitive to pain rather than to touch. The two layers 
are not easily separated. If we receive a burn sufficiently 
severe to form a blister, the fluid which collects raises the 
outer from the inner layer. The outer layer consists of 
a hard, horny-like material, the surface part of which is 
constantly being detached in thin, flat scales. Thus the skin 
is all the time wearing out and being cast off. It does not 
become thinner, however, as this loss is regularly supplied 
from the true skin. It sometimes happens that the outer 
skin is worn off faster than it can be supplied, and the part 
becomes tender. Put a man at handling bricks for the first 


time, and before the day's work is done his finger-ends are 
worn tender. The rough bricks wear away the epidermis 
faster than the new supply from the true skin is formed. 

The skin in those parts of the body most in use, as the 
palm of the hand and sole of the 
foot, is thick and hard. In the 
hand of the laborer the palm be- 
comes horny. In the barefooted 
boy the sole of the foot grows thick 
and tough. In ill-fitting boots parts 
of the foot are so pressed upon and 
rubbed that corns and bunions are 

In the deeper portions of the 
epidermis are minute cells con- 
taining coloring matter, called pig- 
ment cells. This coloring matter 
in the white race is of a pinkish 
hue; in the negro it is brown or 
black. The varying shades from 
white to black are owing as much 
to the thickness of this layer of 
coloring matter, as to the coloring 
matter itself. The sun's rays affect 
these pigment cells, making the FlG . ig.-section of skin: a, 

skin darker. The tanned skin in superficial layer and, &, deep layer 

summer is much darker than the 

of the epidermis; c, papillae; d, 
oil gland ; e, sweat gland ; /, spiral 

skin of unexposed parts. The in- termination of sweat duct; g, hair 
, , ._, ,, ,, bulb; h, hair shaft; i, muscle 

habitants of the sunny south are which erects the hair. 
darker than those of more northern 

regions. Sometimes the action of the sun affects the coloring 
matter in spots, and freckles are the result. 

3. The True Skin. Beneath the epidermis is the cutis, 
or true skin. It is formed of fine elastic tissue. This tissue 


becomes looser and more open in the deeper parts, so that the 
whole skin can be pinched up from the flesh. Forming a 
part of the true skin are the nerves, blood-vessels and to /ands 
for secreting the sweat and oil. It is the white fibrous tissue 
forming the body of the true .skin, or dermis, in animals, 
which is made into leather by action of the tannin contained 
in the oak bark used by the tanner. The outer surface of 
the true skin is marked by small elevated points, the papilla. 
These papillae are well supplied with loops of capillaries, and 
they have special nerve endings. They are very numerous all 
over the body, but are more prominent and more thickly set 
in some parts than in others. On the palmar surface of the 
hand and fingers, where the sense of touch is most acute, they 
are very abundant, and are arranged in rows. These- rows 
are visible to the naked eye. Where these papillae am most 
densely set, the finest necdlr cannot, penetrate the true skin 
without causing pain nor without drawing blood. 

4. Glands of the Skin. There are two kinds of glands 
in the skin, lying cWp down in the' loose tissue. One is the 
gland for secreting sweat, and the other is the oil gland, 
found in connection with the hair. The sweat gland consists 
of a minute tube coiled up below, and running in a zigzag 
manner to the surface of the skin. These glands are found 
in all parts of the body. In some places they are more plen- 
tiful than in others. In the palms of the hands and the soles 
of the feet they are very thickly set. They are more plentiful 
on the forehead than on the cheek. The total number in the 
human body is said to be between two and three millions. 
The most important duty these glands have to perform is to 
regulate the heat of the body. Heat is carried off from the 
body by the process of evaporation. This evaporation is 
regulated according to the amount of heat the body finds it 
necessary to get rid of. The sweat poured out on, the skin 
evaporates and cools the surface. Perspiration is constantly 


gofng on, and while the evaporation is equal to the amount of 
fluid poured out the sweat is not seen. This is called insen- 
sible perspiration. When the body becomes heated, and the 
sweat increases so as to form in drops, it is known as sensible 
perspiration. Under certain nervous influences the skin be- 
comes bathed in sweat, as in the cold sweat of fear. The 
quantity of sweat poured out varies with the season. In 
hot weather it is much more profuse than in cold. Violent 
exercise increases the flow, so also will too much clothing. 
Sudden changes in the weather, or in the amount of clothing, 
or sitting in a draught after being heated, are very apt to 
arrest evaporation and cause a chilliness of the body, followed 
by a "cold" or by "congestion of the lungs." 

Perspiration is a colorless fluid, consisting mostly of water. 
It has a peculiar odor, more marked in some persons than in 
others, and moro in some races of people than in others. 
There is also solid matter in sweat. Salt can be detected 
by tasting it. The worn-out tissues of the body and of the 
skin are found in it; but these vary very much, according 
to the attention paid to the skin. 

5. The Oil Glands. Besides the sweat glands, there are 
also oil glands in the skin. These are little sacs found in 
connection with the hairs, and clustering around them, some- 
times in pairs, but often as many as from four to eight to 
one hair. Each little sac communicates with the hair by a 
duct, along which the oil flows to the root of the hair, and 
then finds its way out to the surface of the skin. It is 
nature's dressing for keeping the hair from becoming crisp 
and brittle, and for keeping the skin soft and moist. 

These glands are more numerous on the face and where the 
hair is thick. They are not usually found where there is no 
hair, as on the palm of the hand. It often happens that 
some of these glands get blocked up, forming unsightly little 


black specks on the face, or they may increase to quite a size 
producing the large lumps sometimes found on the head. 

6. The Hair. The hair and nails are in reality out- 
growths of the epidermis. The root of the hair, called the 
hair follicle, passes obliquely down to the loose cellular tissue. 
It is a portion of the true skin dipping down, forming a little 
hollow, from the bottom of which rises a tiny bulb. The cells 
of the epidermis line this hollow, and form around the bulb. 
They are pressed together lengthwise, and being added to 
from this little bulb, they form a slender tube, which pushes 
its way out beyond the surface of the skin. (Fig. 19.) Very 
small muscles extend from the side of the hair follicles to the 
skin close by. It is the contraction of these minute muscles 
which causes the hair to stand in moments of fear. 

The color of the hair is due to the presence of pigment 
matter. It is said that the many shades of color in the 
human hair are owing to the mixture of three colors black, 
yellow and red in different proportions. As age advances, 
the pigment gradually disappears, leaving the hair white. 
Instances are recorded where, from some strong emotion, the 
hair has lost its color in a single night. This would show 
that even the hair is under the influence of the nervous sys- 
tem. The welfare of the hair is dependent on the condition 
of the skin. The roots of the hair in a healthy skin will be 
likewise healthy. Pulling out a hair by the root does not 
prevent its growing again. To stop hairs from growing, as is 
sometimes done where it disfigures a lady's face, it is necessary 
to destroy the hair bulb. This is a very delicate operation. 

Baldness is a name applied to the want of hair on the top 
of the head. There are many causes for this loss of hair, but 
perhaps the chief amongst them is the tendency there is in 
some families to the early loss of vitality in the hair. Want 
of proper care, in allowing the scales from the skin and oil 
from the glands to become crusted on the scalp, is another 


cause. On the other hand, too much care, in the way of too 
frequent brushing, combing and .shampooing, is the reason 
given by some writers on the subject for the early falling 
of the hair. To prevent baldness, keep the head clean, by 
avoiding the use of oil or any of the so-called hair dressings, 
and by thoroughly washing the head occasionally. Have the 
hair cut regularly say, once a month and comb or dress it 
twice, or at most three times, a day. Use light coverings. 

7. The Nails. The horny material forming the nails on 
the fingers and the toes is a development of the epidermis. 
The root of the nail consists of a furrow in the true skin, and 
the cells of the epidermis so arrange themselves in this furrow 
as to shape the nail and give it the horny character. The 
body of the nail rests, upon the true skin, the bed. The 
growth of the nail takes place from the root by constant 
addition of flattened cells, and the thickness is increased by 
similar growth from the bed. The nail is intended to give 
protection to the fingers and toes when in use. A nail may 
be torn off and again grow, unless the bed is destroyed. It 
may grow in an irregular manner, from the effect of an 
injury, or more commonly, in the case of the toes, from the 
pressure of tight boots. The free borders of the nail at the 
sides of the toe are turned down by this pressure, and/ if 
continued, form the ingrowing nail. 

8. Care of the Skin. Think of the amount of service 
rendered by the skin.(0lt covers the tender flesh ; it regulates 
the heat of the body by the sweat it pours out, and smoothes 
and softens its surface with oil ; it assists the lungs and kid- 
neys in carrying off waste material, and it absorbs or takes 
into the system, to a limited extent at least, whatever may be 
left long in contact with the body. Knowing all this, should 
we not look carefully after its welfare 1 

The scales of the epidermis are constantly falling off, and, 
mixing with the oil, form a sort of crust on the body. Dust 


or dirt is added to this, and the glands get choked up, and 
are no longer free to do their duty. The work that belongs 
to the skin falls to the lungs or kidneys, and overtaxes them, 
and thus the health is interfered with. Cleanliness of the 
skin is, therefore, a matter of the first importance. 

In health nature will do her work, but the individual should 
do his. Regular daily washing of the skin is necessary. To 
omit washing the hands and face is to neglect the first 
principles of cleanliness and decency. It would be a great 
advance in good breeding if a rule to wash daily the whole 
body were observed. The hands and face, being exposed, are 
apt to get dirty, and require more frequent attention than the 
unexposed parts of the body. Often, too, the hands become 
much soiled from work. In addition to an abundance of 
water for cleansing them, it is necessary to use soap, an 
alkaline substance which dissolves oils and fats, and hastens 
the removal of particles of grease and dirt. For the un- 
exposed parts of the body, water alone, used daily, is suffi- 
cient, with a good hand-rubbing of the skin after drying, to 
brush away the loose scales of epidermis. 

9. Bathing. Cleanliness of the skin is not the only object 
in bathing. All-important as it is in this respect, it has other 
beneficial effects. A bath gives increased strength and vigor 
to the whole system. On rising in the morning, a plunge 
into a cold bath is to the healthy and robust an invigorating 
tonic. The less rugged and strong may not receive the same 
benefit. They may even be injured by it. Cold water applied 
to the skin causes the blood-vessels to contract, and the body 
becomes pallid. Reaction soon follows, with an increased 
redness of the skin and a pleasant glow of warmth. If 
reaction is slow and so feeble as to subside readily, the bath 
is too cold, and should not be prolonged. The body should 
be quickly dried, and rubbed vigorously with a coarse towel 
until well reddened and all feeling of shivering passes off. 

THE SKItf. 6* 

For all such cases it is better to begin with a warm bath, 
and day by day make it cooler, until such a temperature is 
reached where reaction is prompt and the bath is refreshing. 
The degree of coldness that may be safely reached in this way 
will vary with the age and strength of the bather. Young 
children and old people, unless strong and vigorous and well 
used to it, cannot take a cold bath without some risk. The 
healthy and robust can take a colder bath and endure more 
exposure to cold water than the weakling. 

It would be difficult to say how long a person should stay 
in a bath. Age and strength are here also the best guides. 
So long as a prompt reaction, with a pleasant feeling of 
warmth, is experienced, the bath has not been too long. This 
is a safe rule. Warm baths are never so refreshing as cold, 
and though the warmth tempts us to linger, they should 
never last beyond four or five minutes. Young children 
should be given a warm bath two or three hours after their 
morning meal. Young people and grown persons who, from 
preference or from delicate health, take warm baths, should 
always do so just before retiring at night. There is little 
risk of taking cold if they go to bed at once. 

It is not always convenient, nor even possible, to have baths 
with hot and cold water attachments, such as are found in 
most dwelling-houses in a city, yet it is not necessary to go 
into a bath to obtain the benefit desired. A tub of water, 
with a sponge and towel, will answer as well, and is always 
available. A daily washing of this kind, followed by brisk 
rubbing, v acts as a stimulus, and to some extent fortifies the 
skin against any evil effects of exposure to cold during the day. 

Too frequent bathing is injurious. A general bath every 
morning in the summer, and a cold sponge-bath every morn- 
ing in winter, with a hot bath at night once a week, will 
keep the body clean, promote the action of the skin, and 
strengthen and refresh the whole system. More than this is 


apt to draw off too much heat from the body and lessen its 

10. Some Common Skin Affections. The skin is sub- 
ject to a variety of diseases. Some of them are due to local 
causes, such as the irritation of vegetable or animal poisons. 
The sting of a nettle, the effect of poison ivy, the sting of a 
bee, or the bite of a mosquito, are examples of these. Certain 
parasites find in the hair and skin suitable ground for lodg- 
ing. They grow and multiply, and often cause much irrita- 
tion of the skin. They are contagious in the sense that they 
are easily transferred from one child to another. Constant 
care and watchfulness are necessary to prevent these vile 
little creatures from infecting a school. 

Stoppage of an oil gland may produce a pimple. If many 
are affected together, a sort of boil may result. 

The skin may become congested or inflamed from too much 
heat, as in scalds or burns. The hot sun of summer will 
burn and inflame parts of the body not accustomed to being 
exposed to its rays. Erysipelas (St. Anthony's Fire) is 
an inflammation of the skin, which spreads rapidly and is 
often very severe. It is contagious, and should be carefully 

11. Effects of Alcohol on the Skin. We will find, 

when we come to speak of digestion, that a part of the food 
goes to supply the heat of the body. It is a sort of fuel that 
is regularly fed to the system to keep the body warm, just as 
a stove is kept going by fresh supplies of coal. In a stove 
the amount of heat is regulated by opening and closing of 
draughts and dampers. In the body the heat is kept at a 
constant standard by the opening and closing of the pores of 
the skin. The chief duty of the skin is to regulate the heat 
of the body. Does alcohol affect the skin in any way, so as 
to interfere with the proper discharge of this duty ? 

The first effect of alcohol upon the skin is to dilate the 


small blood-vessels. This allows the warm blood to flow 
towards the surface in increased quantities. The result is a 
flushed appearance of the face and hands, and of the skin 
generally. This flushing causes the body to feel warmer, and 
indeed the surface is warmer. The body heat is brought 
more to the surface, and the sensation leads to the feeling 
that the body is warmer. To "take just a drop to keep out 
the cold" might, if looked at thus far, seem justifiable, and 
the old belief that alcohol warms the body might seem true. 

Let us go a step further. Just as the fire in the stove, 
intended to warm a room, first heats the surface of the stove 
and then radiates to the air of the room, so the heat which 
has reached the surface of the body radiates into the atmos- 
phere. It passes off more rapidly than it should do, and the 
body is actually cooler. Alcohol so affects the nerves of the 
skin that they lose their control over the surface circulation, 
and heat is lost faster than it is supplied. The experience of 
Arctic explorers, and of people who live in the colder regions 
of Canada and other northern climates, fully bears out this 
statement. Alcohol is now strictly forbidden when great 
exposure to cold is to be encountered. 

By interfering with the surface circulation alcohol also 
interferes with the proper nourishment of the skin. Fre- 
quent use of liquor causes a frequent flushed condition of 
the skin. The blood-vessels in certain localities become per- 
manently dilated. The skin of the face and nose in time 
assumes a dull and blotchy appearance, readily recognized as 
the "port-wine nose" or the "brandy nose." Dark brown 
spots appear on the skin in different parts. There is a 
stronger tendency to skin diseases generally in the case of 
those who use alcoholic drinks, and when established, they 
are more chronic and more difficult to manage. 

Tobacco also affects the skin, giving it a peculiar dry and 
sallow look. 



1. Need for Food. It has been explained why the body 
requires daily food : in the first place, to build up the body, 
and in the second place, to supply material for renewing the 
tissues, which are constantly wearing out. The arrangement 
provided for converting the various food stuffs into blood 
is as perfect in design as we have seen the construction 
of the body to be. An immense tube, beginning at the 
mouth, passes through the body. This tube is not of uniform 
size. In some places it is dilated, while in others it is quite 
narrow. The gullet, for instance, is a narrow tube, while the 
stomach is an expansive sac. This alimentary canal, as it is 
called, is lined by a -thin membrane, a continuation of the 
skin. It is seen in the lips, where a sharp line marks the 
boundary between the skin and this reddish mucous mem- 
brane. Outside the mucous membrane are other layers, which 
go to form the walls of this canal. The muscular layer, or 
coat, by involuntary action passes the food along the tube. 
Numerous blood and lymphatic vessels form a part of the 
walls. These lymphatics are located in the intestinal tube 
for absorbing and conveying into the system the nutritious 
portions of the digested food. We find along this canal also 
the openings of the ducts of the various glands, which pro- 
vide important fluids to aid in the process of digestion. The 
glands themselves are mostly situated in the walls. Some, 
like the salivary gland, are placed at a distance from it. 

That part of the alimentary canal extending from the lips 
to the stomach, may be divided into the portions forming the 


mouth, the pharynx, or throat, and the gullet, a long, narrow 
tube, passing down through the back part of the thorax and 
piercing the diaphragm, where it dilates to form the stomach. 

2. The Mouth. The cavity of the mouth has for its 
boundaries the lips and cheeks in front and at the sides; 
below, the tongue and lower jaw; and above, the palate. 
The palate consists of two portions; the front part, resting 
on the upper jaw, is the hard palate, or roof of the mouth. 
It separates the mouth from the nasal cavity. The back 
part, the soft palate, consists of mucous membrane folded 
upon itself. It is continuous with the floor of the nasal 
cavity. The soft palate arches downward, and forms a par- 
tition between the mouth and the pharynx. In the middle of 
the lower border of the soft palate is a prolongation, like an 
inverted cone, the uvula, often called the palate. 

3. Mastication. The first steps in the process of diges- 
tion are taken in the mouth. The food is ground up into a 
pulpy mass by the teeth. While this process called mastica- 
tion goes on, the saliva is poured into the mouth and mixes 
with the food. The tongue also aids, in a mechanical way, 
by keeping the food between the teeth. 

4. The Teeth. These hard, bone-like structures do not 
appear until some months after birth. They are arranged in 
two semi-circular rows, the upper and lower teeth. The former 
are firmly planted in the borders of the upper jaw, the latter 
in the lower jaw. In infancy, at about the seventh month, 
the front teeth begin to appear. The point of the tooth 
gradually pierces the somewhat dense mucous membrane form- 
ing the gum, and one after another is cut, until the child, 
at two years of age, has twenty teeth. But this set of teeth, 
called the temporary, or milk set, is short-lived. They are 
all cast off during childhood, and are followed by a new set. 
These also make their appearance gradually. The same num- 
ber take the place of the temporary set, and three others are 



added at the back part of each side of both jaws, thus making 
in all thirty-two teeth. These are the permanent set. They 
begin to take the place of the others when the child is six 
and a half years old, and are not completed until the wisdom 
teeth are cut. The wisdom teeth appear anywhere between 
the seventeenth and twenty-first year, but are occasionally 
later. . Each tooth has its root, or fang, the crown, or top of 
the tooth, and the neck, or portion between the root and the 

* t * 

Fw. 20. The Adult Teeth: 1, 2, the incisors; 3, canine; 4, 5, bicuspids; 
6, 7, 8, molars. 

The teeth are divided into four kinds : incisors, canines, 
bicuspids and molars. The incisors, four in number in each 
jaw, placed in front, are for cutting the food. They have 
sharp edges. The four canines, two in each jaw, one on 
each side, resemble the teeth in cats and dogs, who use them 
for seizing and holding their prey. Next to these, two on 
each side, in both jaws, are the bicuspids, and behind these 
twelve molars or grinders, in lots of three to each correspond- 



ing portion of the jaws. The crown of the molars is large, 
with a broad, uneven surface, intended for grinding the food. 
The first three kinds of teeth have a single root or fang, 
but the bicuspids, being marked by a groove on each side, 
are partially divided into two, hence their name. The molars 
have two, three, and sometimes four fangs. 

5. Structure of a Tooth. The tooth consists of a hard 
outer portion, the ivory, and the pulp within. The bulk of 
the outer portion, situated next the pulp, is called the dentine. 

FIG. 21. Diagram showing how the teeth' fit into each other. 

Over this, on the crown, is the enamel. Covering the dentine 
of the root is the cement. Chemically, the dentine is like 
bone tissue, but the tooth is harder than bone. The pulp is 
composed of connective tissue, with blood-vessels and nerves. 
These enter the tooth through the extremity of the fang. 

The life of the tooth does not correspond with the life of 
the body. The permanent set begins to appear, as we. have 
said, when the child is about six and a half to seven years 
of age. Prior to this the crown has been formed, and the 


growing tooth presses against the milk tooth, loosening and 
crowding it up, until it finally drops out. Sometimes the 
milk teeth remain firm in their sockets, and if not removed 
the coming teeth will be pressed aside, causing unsightly 

6. Care of the Teeth. When a permanent tooth is 
removed, another does not come in its place. Constant atten- 
tion is necessary to preserve the teeth from decay. The prin- 
cipal source of danger is from particles of food getting lodged 
between them. If allowed to remain, the food decomposes, 
and destroys the enamel, causing ulceration around the body 
of the tooth. To prevent this, the tooth-brush should be used 
daily, and all food removed from between the teeth. When 
carefully attended to in this way, tooth powder and servere 
scouring of the teeth are not necessary. In fact, the enamel 
may be injured by too much interference. 

A deposit from the saliva, called tartar, often forms around 
the root of the tooth. This should be removed, or it may 
extend toward the root and loosen the tooth; or decomposing, 
it may injure or discolor the enamel. It is very often the 
decomposition of the tartar, or of bits of food, which gives 
rise to foulness of breath. Decay of the tooth may arise 
from injury to the enamel by biting substances too hard for 
the teeth, such as bending a pin or cracking nuts. The 
enamel may also be cracked by sudden exposure to cold. 
The mouth should be kept closed on going out of a warm 
room into the wintry cold. If the enamel is preserved un- 
broken, the tooth is not likely to decay. 

Human teeth loosen and drop out in advanced age. The 
wisdom teeth, so called because they do not appear until 
maturity, the " age for wisdom," are usually the first to dis- 
appear. The structure of a tooth is so hard and compact, 
that long after death, when the bones of the body have all 
crumbled to dust, the teeth remain whole. 


7. The Tongue. This important organ consists princi- 
pally of muscle, and is literally the most active muscle in 
the body. It is covered with mucous membrane, and highly 
endowed with sensibility. The nerves of the special sense of 
taste belong to the tongue. On its upper surface may be seen 
a number of little eminences, or papillae, which are freely 
supplied with delicate nerve-fibres from these nerves. These 
papillae vary in size. Some are quite small pointed little 
specks. There is a row of large ones at the back part of the 
tongue, arranged in the form of the letter V inverted. 

The root of the tongue is attached to the hyoid bone. The 
three chief functions of the tongue are : It rolls the food 
about in the mouth, and helps to keep it between the teeth 
to be crushed ; it is the seat of the sense of taste, and it takes 
part in the articulation of speech. In the young the tongue 
is bright red in color. As age advances it becomes paler, 
excepting at the tip and edges. This organ promptly sympa- 
thizes with the stomach when in any way deranged. By 
the appearance of the tongue the physician is guided, not 
only in ailments of the stomach, but in almost every form 
of disease. 

8. The Saliva. The mouth is kept moist with fluid 
secreted by the mucous membrane. The saliva proper is 
secreted by a number of glands, which are stimulated to 
action by the presence of food. The saliva will begin to 
flow before the food reaches the mouth, and sometimes the 
thought of food will " make the mouth to water." Mixing 
with the food as it is ground, the saliva assists in bringing 
it more quickly into a soft, pulpy mass, fit for swallowing. 
It is a thin, colorless fluid, which acts upon certain parts 
of the food chemically. 

9. Salivary Glands. The saliva is secreted by three 
pairs of glands, the parotid, the submaxillary and the sub- 
lingual. The parotid lies in front of the ear. It has a duct 


which carries the saliva across the cheek, and pours it into 
the mouth opposite the molar teeth. The submaxillary, as its 
name implies, li^s under the lower jaw, and its ducts open 
into the mouth under the tongue. The sublingual is placed 
under the tongue, beneath the mucous membrane, and has 
a number of ducts opening into the mouth. A common 
affection in children is inflammation of the parotid gland, a 
disease familiarly known as mumps. 

10. The Fauces. At the back part of the mouth is the 
entrance to the throat. Its boundaries are the soft palate 
and the uvula above, the root of the tongue beneath, and on 
either side the pillars of the fauces, extending from the soft 
palate to the tongue. They consist of muscular tissue, covered 
with mucous membrane. 

11. The Tonsils. Between the pillars on each side is 
the tonsil. It is a large gland. The tonsils are often swollen 
from a cold or from an inflamed throat, and may become 
permanently enlarged, so as to interfere with the breathing. 
Acute inflammation of these glands is commonly called quinsy. 
Diphtheria usually makes its first appearance on the tonsils. 

12. The Pharynx. Immediately behind the fauces is 
a large space or chamber, the pharynx. The lower portion 
contracts into a narrow channel, the mouth of the gullet. 
Opening into this cavity are the mouth and nose, in front. 
On each side, near the top, are the openings of two small 
tubes which lead to the ear. Below are the openings into the 
windpipe in front, and the gullet behind. Both food and air 
pass through the pharynx. The arrargement by which this 
is done is very complete. Usually the soft palate hangs like 
a curtain, behind which the current of air passes from the 
nose through the pharynx into the windpipe. When food is 
being swallowed this curtain is drawn up. 

13. The Epiglottis. At the root of the tongue is a 
spoon-shaped piece of cartilage called the epiglottis. It acts 



like the lid of a chest. Usually the epiglottis stands erect, 
but the moment any food passes over the tongue, it is 
instantly drawn down, and closes the opening into the wind- 
pipe, so that the food is carried on to the gullet. If not 
well closed, a little food or drink may " go the wrong way," 

Fro. 22. Section showing passages to the gullet and windpipe. 

and cause violent coughing and choking. Boisterous laughter 
at table is sometimes suddenly and seriously checked in this 
accidental way. 

The process of swallowing food is partially a voluntary and 
partially an involuntary action of the muscles engaged. It is 
by the individual's will that food or drink is carried into the 


pharynx. When it reaches a certain point the involuntary 
muscles, first of the pharynx, then of the gullet, begin to act, 
and by alternately relaxing and contracting, the food is 
passed on into the stomach. This motion may be seen when 
a horse is drinking. 

14. The CEsophagUS. The gullet is a tube about nine 
inches in length, extending from the pharynx to the stomach. 
This tube is made of three coats the lining or mucous mem- 
brane, a middle coat of connective tissue, and the outer mus- 
cular coat, consisting of two layers. The fibres of muscle lie 
lengthwise in the outer layer, and in the inner layer they 
circle around the tube. As the muscular rings .contract, one 
after another, they force the food towards the stomach. 

15. The Stomach. The chief organ of digestion is situ- 
ated within the abdominal cavity, immediately beneath the 
diaphragm. It is conical in shape, something like a pear, 
with the small end turned a good deal to one side. It has 
also been compared to a bag-pipe. It is placed across the 
body, the large end to the left. The gullet enters the stomach 
near this end, on the upper surface. This is called the car- 
diac opening, because it is near the heart. The small end to 
the right is turned upward, narrowed for a little distance, 
and is continuous with the intestine. The opening at this 
end is called the pylorus, or gate guardian. The healthy 
stomach of the adult will contain about three pints to two 
quarts of liquid. 

The stomach has four coats ; three similar to those of the 
gullet, and an outside coat of smooth serous membrane, which 
prevents friction from the movements of the stomach. The 
serous membrane, after covering the stomach, passes to the 
inner wall of the body, and holds this organ in place. The 
muscular coat has two layers, one with its fibres lengthwise, 
the other running round the organ, and at the large end an 
additional layer of oblique fibres. The united action of these 


muscles produces a movement of the contents of the stomach 
like churning. In this way the food is thoroughly mixed 
with the secretions from the inner walls of the stomach. 
The mucous membrane, or lining of the stomach, is of a 
pinkish hue, changing to red during digestion. It lies in 
folds when the stomach is empty, but these folds disappear 
when it is filled. Examined closely, the lining of the 
stomach has a peculiar honeycomb appearance, owing to 
its being dotted over with small shallow pits. At the 
bottom of these little pits a number of ducts open. They 
are the openings through which the juice from the gastric 
glands situated in the lining reaches the food. 

The stomach is freely supplied with blood-vessels, and when 
food is swallowed it excites the nerves of this organ, and 
causes the small vessels to dilate. The increased flow of 
blood, besides furnishing the glands with material from which 
to extract the juice, stimulates them to action. 

The gastric juice is a thin, colorless fluid, with a distinctly 
acid taste. Besides this free acid, it contains a peculiar 
substance known as pepsin. The acid and the pepsin are 
both necessary to the digestion of food in the stomach. 
When the meal is completed the muscles begin to contract, 
so as to roll the food over and over, until thoroughly mixed 
with this juice, and reduced to a pulpy, soup-like mass. All 
this time the outlet to the stomach is guarded so that no 
food can pass until it has been properly changed. The flow 
of gastric juice may be too free, and interfere with healthy 
digestion. This increased flow may be caused by stimulating 
articles, such as mustard or pepper, taken with the food, or 
still worse, the use of ALCOHOL in any form, to stimulate 
the appetite. On the other hand, the flow may be too 
scanty. It is sometimes checked by a drink of cold water, 
or by swallowing a piece of ice. If food is taken when a 
person is much fatigued, the secretion of gastric juice is 


likely to be deficient. Strong emotions will also check the 

16. Absorption. The length of time required for the 
digestion of food varies, some articles being more quickly 
digested than others. Liquid food and drinks are quickly 
taken up by the absorbents in the coats of the stomach. 
Speaking generally, after the food has been in the stomach 
from an hour and a half to two hours, portions of it will, 
have undergone the necessary changes to convert it into 
chyme. The pylorus relaxes sufficiently at intervals to allow 
this soup-like, grayish-colored fluid, which has found its way 
to that end of the stomach, to pass out into the intestine. 
In succession, portion after portion is digested and passed on, 
until all the food which the stomach is capable of digesting 
is disposed of. Then the pylorus, having retained everything 
as long as necessary, freely relaxes, and the indigestible bal- 
ance passes into the intestine, to be further acted upon. 

17. The Intestines. The process of digestion is by no 
means complete when the food, changed into chyme, is" poured 
into the intestines. Further changes here take place, and 
the food advances in the vitalizing process of being converted 
into blood. 

The alimentary canal, from the stomach onward, is divided 
into the large and small intestines. The total length is about 
twenty-five feet. This tube is so coiled and doubled upon 
itself as to fit snugly in the abdomen. The coats of the 
intestines are the same in number as those of the stomach. 

The small intestine, about twenty feet in length, com- 
mences at the stomach. It is largest at the beginning, being 
nearly two inches in diameter. This first part is called the 
duodenum, because it is about the length of twelve fingers' 
breadth. Where the small intestine joins the large, it is 
little more than an inch in diameter. The large intestine is 
from one and a half to two and a half inches in diameter, 



being also largest at its commencement. At the point of 
union, the two tubes do not form a continuous straight 
passage, but the smaller one opens into the larger on its 
inner side, something after the manner in which a small 
pipe leads off from the side of 
a larger. The large intestine is 
here closed at its lowest part, 
forming a pouch. 

A magnifying glass shows the 
inner surface of the small intes- 
tine to be covered with minute 
elevations. These are known as 
villi. The size of each villus is 
from one-fiftieth to one-thirty- 
second of an inch in length. 
They are so thickly placed as to 
give the lining the appearance 
of the pile on velvet. It is these 
tiny projections that give to tripe 
its peculiar appearance. In each 
villus is a branch, sometimes 
double, of the lymphatic system. 
These branches are .known as 
the lacteals, so called because, 

during digestion, they contain a ^ ^^ Alimentary Canal 
milky fluid, the chyle, which they low the gullet: i, stomach; 2, 3, 4, 
have sucked up from the con- 
tents of the intestine. Follow- 
ing the chyle on through the lacteals, we find the tubes 
become larger, and finally pour their contents into a sac at 
the back of the loins, called the receptacle of the chyle. Trom 
this sac, the thoracic duct ascends through the back part 
of the thoracic cavity, and eventually opens into a large vein 

small intestines; 6-11, large intestine; 
5, closed pouch of large intestine. 



in the neck. It is at this point, therefore, that the nutrient 
parts of the food enter directly into the blood current. 

The secretions which enter the intestine to be mixed with 
the chyme are from different sources, and differ in their 
action. There is the intestinal juice, from the intestinal 
glands, whose ducts open between the villi all over the inner 
surface of the intestine; the pancreatic juice, from the pan- 
creas, and the bile, from the liver. 

18. The Pancreas. This is the sweet-bread of the lower 
animals. It is situated under and behind the stomach, and 

varies in length from six 
to eight inches. It bears 
some resemblance to a 
dog's tongue. The pan- 
creas secretes a fluid called 
the pancreatic juice, which 
closely resembles saliva in 
its action on the food. 

19. The Liver. This 
is the largest gland in 
the body, and is situated 
immediately beneath the 
diaphragm, on the right 
side. Its weight is about four pounds. The human liver has 
the same general appearance as that taken from the animal. 
The liver is divided into a right and left lobe by a deep 
fissure, the right being the larger. The upper surface is 
smooth and rounded. In the -fissure are found the blood- 
vessels, and a duct coming from each lobe. These ducts 
unite and form one channel, for carrying the bile into the 
intestine. At a little distance from the union of the two 
ducts is another, which leads off the bile when not required 
for digestion, and stores it up in a little pear-shaped sac, 
called the gall bladder. After a meal the stored-up bile finds 

FIG. 24. Section of Stomach. 


its way back again into the common duct, and flows into the 
intestine, to be mixed with the food. 

The chief function of the liver is to secrete the bile, a 
greenish-yellow, bitter fluid. The bile duct, as it enters the 
intestine, is joined by the pancreatic duct, so that these fluids 
reach the food at the same point, about four inches from 
the pylorus. 

20. Kinds Of Food. Before tracing the food through 
these several steps in the process of digestion, and showing 
the action of the different secretions it meets with on its 
course, it will be necessary to classify the several varieties of 
food used by man. The almost universal habit of the human 
race, guided by instinct and reason, shows that a mixed diet 
is the best. The different kinds of teeth would even indicate 

There are three kinds of food : 


To the first belong albumen, as the white of the egg, 
casein, the principal part of cheese, the fibres of lean meat, 
and the gluten of grain. The second class comprises the fats, 
starch and sugar. In the third class there are water and such 
mineral substances as salt, potash, sulphur, phosphorus and 

The elements of nutrition must have the power to combine 
with oxygen. The living body, like fire in a stove, must be 
supplied with fuel that will burn. The food, as swallowed, is 
not fuel. It has to undergo changes, both chemical and vital, 
before it is prepared to become blood and feed the system. 
Albumen exists in the blood, but if the white of an egg were 
injected into a blood-vessel, it would be worse than useless; 
the albumen of the blood must be the product of the digestive 


organs. Iron, also, is a constituent of the blood, but it can 
only become so through the digestive organs. 

Any one of these kinds of food is not alone sufficient to 
supply the wants of the body. Nitrogenous foods have all 
the elements necessary for nutrition, but not all of them in 
sufficient quantities for ec r .iomical living, while their exclu- 
sive use would, in time, overtax the digestive system. The 
same lack of economy and overwork of the digestive system 
would be evident if we confined ourselves to fats, starch, or 
sugar as a diet. Too much of one kind will not make up for 
too little of another. 

21. The Digestive System a Complete Workshop. 

The process of digestion is carried on in a most perfect and 
fully equipped workshop. It commences the moment food 
enters the mouth. While being made ready to swallow, the 
change is started by the saliva, an alkaline fluid, containing 
a ferment (diastase) which converts the starchy parts of food 
into a kind of sugar. Starch is insoluble, while sugar is freely 
dissolved. Eating is, therefore, not a mere grinding of the 
food until, with a mouthful of tea or other drink, it can be 
swallowed. It is the first step in digestion, and in order that 
the saliva may do its work properly, the food should be well 
ground and thoroughly moistened and softened by the saliva 
only. The necessity for this is more plain when we know the 
saliva can only act upon the starch in a mixture which is 
slightly alkaline, and that as soon as swallowed the food 
meets with a secretion in the stomach which is acid. 

22. Stomach Digestion. The work begun by the saliva 
is not completed until the food reaches the intestine. The 
gastric juice has little effect on the starchy matters. In the 
stomach the albumens, such as are contained in meat, eggs, 
cheese, bread, etc., are acted upon. Fats are not affected by 
the gastric juice, although the cells are dissolved and the oil 
set free. The free acid in the gastric juice keeps the food 


wholesome. Meat, for instance, can be kept pure for days in 
gastric juice. The germs which are known to be the causes 
of typhoid and cholera are destroyed by this acid. 

The pepsin acts as a ferment, that is, it converts a sub- 
stance into more simple elements, so that it is more readily 
dissolved and easily taken up by the system. Besides the 
pepsin, there is another ferment in the gastric juice, called 
rennet. It has the property of curdling milk, as the good 
housewife knows who uses the dried stomach of the calf for 
curdling the milk in cheese-making. Milk curdles in the 
stomach as a natural process of digestion, and afterwards 
breaks down and is dissolved. 

It will be seen that the bulk of the food is changed in the 
stomach. What is not digested is broken down and divided, 
and passes on with the rest into the intestine, as a grayish, 
pulpy mass. It is not probable that all those portions of the 
food which are digested in the stomach pass into the intes- 
tine. A certain amount is immediately taken up by the 
absorbents in the walls of the stomach and enters the system 
directly. This explains why soup, beef-tea, and other liquid 
foods satisfy the appetite so readily. 

23. Intestinal Digestion. Here the food again enters 
an alkaline medium, and the final work of digestion is com- 
pleted. The starch that was not acted upon by the saliva, 
meeting with the pancreatic juice, is converted into sugar. 
This juice has also the property of splitting up the oils, and 
rendering it possible for them, in the presence of the bile, to 
mix more readily with the watery fluid in the intestine, and 
to be sucked up by the villi. The pancreatic juice also con- 
tinues the digestion of the partly changed albumens from the 
stomach. This juice seems, indeed, to be the most useful 
of all the digestive fluids, being capable of affecting all the 
elements of food, and bringing them into a form fit to enter 
the lacteals, and thence into the blood. 



24. Action of the Ferments. The following table will 
show more readily the action of the various juices on the 





Saliva . 

Salivary diastase 


Changes starch into sugar. 

Gastric juice 

(a) Pepsin . . 

Changes albumens. 

(b) Rennet . . . . 

Curdles the casein of milk. 


(a) Trypsin . 
(b) Curdling ferment . 
(c) Pancreatic diastase . 
(d) Emulsive ferment . 

Changes albumens. 
Curdles the casein of milk. 
Changes starch into sugar. 
Emulsifies fats. 

Bile. . . . 

Emulsive ferment 

Assists in emulsifying fats. 

juice . 

Curdling ferment 

Curdles the casein of milk. 

25. The Appetite. A desire to take food at stated inter- 
vals is a natural law common to every living creature. The 
selection of food in the lower animals is guided by instinct 
alone. In man, the choice of food depends to some extent on 
instinct, but more on habit and the ability to procure articles 
agreeable to the taste. The sense of taste, while mostly a 
sure guide, may be perverted, and lead to the use of food 
least suited to the wants of the body. 

The food used should be suited to the age, the occupation, 
the climate, and the condition of the system. It should be 
taken at stated intervals. The digestive system requires rest, 


just as do all the organs of the body. Three meals a day is a 
common division of labor for the organs of digestion. This is 
in accordance with the laws of physiology, and established by 
experience. In departing from this rule we impose upon the 

In infancy, milk is sufficient to supply all the necessaries of 
life, but as the child grows, a more varied diet is required. 
Now comes the temptation. The child develops tastes, and 
unless checked, will take to excess the food for which it has 
the greatest liking. Craving for candies and sweetmeats is 
common, and if indulged, will injure the stomach and take 
away the desire for proper food. Children should be taught 
temperance in food, and not allowed to eat wholly of any one 
class because their appetites run in that direction. 

The kind of food most suitable to man depends largely on 
the climate in which he lives. In the cold northern regions 
there is the strongest* liking for the heat-producers, and the 
natives live mostly on fats. In the sunny south a diet of 
fruits and vegetables largely prevails. In temperate climates 
the diet consists of mixed foods. In his primitive state man 
uses food in its simplest forms. The more civilized the more 
he becomes addicted to the use of artificial food, and the 
more he suffers from digestive derangements. To the natural 
appetite no artificial preparations to please the taste are 
required. To indulge the taste for the pleasure it affords 
often means the taking of more food than the system requires. 
The cook who prepares the daintiest dishes may not always 
be regarded as a benefactor to his fellowrnaii. 

26. Alcoholic Stimulants and Tonics. A tonic is a 
medicine given to increase the appetite, or to strengthen and 
invigorate the system. It is only when a person is feeling ill, 
or is recovering from a severe sickness, that a tonic to the 
stomach is desirable. To be continually dosing the system to 
create an appetite is unwise. It is vastly more so to try to do 


this by the use of stimulants, no matter whether the dose be 
in the form of some "well-known bitters," a "glass of beer," 
a " taste " of sherry, or a " plain " whiskey and water. Many 
drugs may be, and are, taken, which probably do little or no 
harm to the system. But this 3-innot be said of alcoholic 
stimulants. Their irritating action on any of the tissues is 
injurious, but more especially so on , tender part, like the 
lining membrane of the stomach. Derangements of digestion 
are sure to follow the continued use of alcohol. 

27. Natural and Prepared Drinks. Water is the 
universal drink. Its necessity is perfectly clear. The weight 
and bulk of the body are largely due to the presence of water. 
It is the great vehicle by which food is taken into the system, 
and through its agency the various functions of the body are 
carried on. It makes -up the bulk of the blood, and is the 
great dissolving fluid of the system. It is not in itself a 
food, but it forms a part of all food taken into the mouth. 
It dissolves solid material, and keeps it in solution. Its use 
and necessity are obvious. 

In milk we have a standard article of diet. It is both food 
and drink for the infant during many months. It will alone 
sustain the body at any period of life for an indefinite time. 
Frequently in old age it is the sole article of diet. Water 
and milk are the two great natural drinks. The human 
system needs no other. In health any other is likely to 
prove injurious. It is true that tea and coffee are largely 
used, and, as a rule, seemingly without any injury. The 
taste for these, however, is not natural. It is acquired. 
Constant use brings the system into such a condition that it 
tolerates them without any apparent ill effects. If either be 
taken in excess, or drunk freely between meals, it will injure 
the stomach. But these, and kindred beverages, bear no 
comparison to alcohol, an agent alike destructive to the health 
of the body as to the individual tissues and organs. 


. When diluted with water, alcohol is readily absorbed, and 
carried by the blood to every part of the body. No organ or 
tissue is safe from it. Unless it can be shown that alcohol 
possesses elements of nutrition, or furnishes material for the 
production of heat, its presence is useless. If useless, it can- 
not but be harmful. Anything in the system which can 
serve no useful purpose must, of necessity, be in the way; 
and if anything is present which interferes with the functions 
of life, efforts will be put forth to get rid of it. Such is the 
case when even a small quantity of alcohol is taken. The 
lungs, the skin, and the kidneys are at once engaged in 
expelling it. It taints the breath, it exudes from the skin, it 
saturates the whole system with its odor. We have already 
said that food, in order that it may nourish the body, must 
be changed. Now, if alcohol escapes from the body without 
any change, it is clear it cannot be a food, and the question, 
"Is alcohol a food 1 ?" can readily be answered. The study of 
physiology leads to this conviction, and scientific truths can- 
not be ignored. As to alcohol being a factor of heat, it has 
been clearly demonstrated that it reduces the temperature. 
Experience among soldiers and seamen in high latitudes has 
abundantly shown that the extremes of cold are better en- 
dured without, than by the use of, spirits. 

The absence of anything useful, and the burden it places on 
the powers of nature to cast it out, supply safe grounds upon 
which to declare alcohol a poison to the human system. 

28. Effects of Alcohol on the Stomach. Alcohol has 
a strong affinity for water, and if applied to the skin will 
extract its moisture, leaving it shrunken and hard. The 
stronger it is the greater the effect. When taken into the 
stomach, it will have a similar effect upon its mucous lining. 
When first taken, if in small quantities, such, for example, as 
might be called temperate drinking, it irritates the mucous 
coat, causing the blood-vessels to dilate, This increased flow 


of blood is really a congestion just such a condition as we 
see brought about in the eye in a very few minutes if a speck 
of dust or a small insect chances to get into it. 

Now, if this injected and distended state of the vessels be 
kept up by a continuous "tippling," the mucous membrane 
becomes inflamed, thickened and softened. The stomach shows 
signs of derangement. The gastric glands, which at first 
were stimulated to over-work and over-supply of gastric juice, 
are now interfered with, and the secretion is checked. The 
appetite for food is lost, and is often replaced by a morbid 
desire for more stimulants. The pepsin, so necessary to the 
digestion of food in the stomach, acts very imperfectly, and 
if the quantity of liquor taken be large, will cease to act at 
all. The stomach is upset, and the inebriate suffers from 
dyspepsia, indigestion, chronic catarrh, acidity and even neu- 
ralgia of that organ. 

If this state is continued for some time, the lining mem- 
brane may ulcerate, a condition attended with considerable 
danger on account of the possibility of profuse bleeding from 
these ulcers, and the probability of some one or more of them 
eating through the stomach, and causing death. 

Further action of the persistent use of alcohol is shown in 
its extension to all the coats, thickening and hardening them, 
until the stomach is of little use as a digestive organ. Think 
of the condition of the poor unfortunate drunkard ; appetite 
gone, nausea, vomiting, intense thirst, pain in the head, red 
eyes, bloated face, coated and red tongue, frequent pulse, and 
often fever. 

29. Effects of Alcohol on the Liver. It is not alone 

in the stomach that the habitual drinker suffers. The small 
intestines are also involved. Functional derangement, and 
subsequent changes, such as we have described in the stomach, 
are likely to take place here. The pancreas, also, is affected. 
But it is in the liver we find the most marked changes of 


structure. The liver and the brain are the two organs which 
seem to receive the largest percentage of the alcohol taken 
into the system. Continual congestion of the liver resulting 
from alcoholic drinks inevitably leads to an alteration in its 
texture, and deranges its function. At first it is inflamed, 
enlarged, and soft. Afterwards it contracts and hardens, 
and presents an uneven surface. This is called a "hob-nail," 
or gin-drinker's liver. From the first, the bile secreted is 
unhealthy, and is not fit to perform its part in the intestinal 
digestion. The frequent drinker suffers from "biliousness," 
and other intestinal disturbances. 

Sometimes the liver is very greatly enlarged by the de- 
posit of fat in its substance. This is the disease spoken of 
in connection with the muscular system as fatty degenera- 
tion. In some cases the liver reaches an enormous weight, 
fifteen, and even twenty to twenty-five, pounds being not 

30. The Effect of Tobacco on Digestion. It is in 
stimulating and increasing the flow of saliva, which is thus 
lost to the system, that tobacco chiefly affects the digestive 
organs. The, sense of taste, so necessary to the proper appre- 
ciation of food, and desire for eating it, is numbed by the 
use of tobacco. Hence it really checks, or in a sense satisfies, 
the appetite for food. 

It frequently inflames the throat, and keeps up a chronic 
catarrh, or " smoker's sore- throat," which may extend to the 
stomach, and cause a feeling of general distress, with derange- 
ment of this and other organs. 




1. The Blood. The blood is the life-giving liquid which 
permeates every part of the body, except the cuticle, hair, 
nails, etc. The average quantity in the body is equal to 
about one-thirteenth of the body-weight; therefore, a man 

FIG. 25. Blood Corpuscles: A, magnified about 400 diameters. 
The red corpuscles have arranged themselves in rolls, a, a, white 
corpuscles. B, red corpuscles more magnified ; C, corpuscles seen 
edgewise ; F, G, /7, 7, white corpuscles highly magnified. 

weighing about one hundred and eighty-five pounds would 
have between fourteen and fifteen pounds of blood. As it 
is drawn from the body, it is a red, sticky fluid. Examined 


under the microscope, we find, in addition to a fluid, which 
is called plasma, there are numerous small discs, or corpuscles, 
floating about in the fluid. 

There are two varieties of blood corpuscles, the red and the 
white. It is the presence of the enormous quantity of red 
corpuscles that gives to the blood its red color. They are 
little, flat, circular discs, resembling a coin, only thicker 
near the rim than at the centre. They have a strong ten- 
dency to run together, like a roll of ten-cent pieces as 
seen in Fig. 25, where some lie separate, while others are 
in -rolls. 

The white corpuscles are not so numerous, only about one 
to every four hundred of the red. They are a little larger 
and more globular in shape, although, watched under the 
microscope, it will be noticed that in making their way 
through the minute vessels they change their shape. 

2. Uses of the Blood. These little corpuscles are really 
the carriers of food to the tissues. Like boats on a stream, 
they float along, laden with material, which thoy unload into 
the system ; then reload with the refuse, and carry it back to 
the lungs, to be given off into the air. They are charged with 
oxygen in the lungs, and carry it to where there is work to 
be done or repairs to be made. 

The plasma is rich in mineral matter for the bones, and in 
albumen for the muscles. 

3. Clotting of Blood. When blood is drawn from the 
body it soon clots, that is, it forms into a jelly-like mass. 
The clot consists mainly of two substances a network of 
tough, fibrous threads, called fibrin, which separates out from 
the plasma and the corpuscles, which are caught in this net- 
work. The clotting of the blood is an important provision of 
nature for arresting its flow from a wounded blood-vessel. 
The moment blood escapes from the vessel, the fibrin begins 
to form, and clogs up the cut and arrests the flow from th5 



wound. It sometimes happens that little or no fibrin forms, 
and the slightest wound bleeds freely. In such a case it 
is dangerous to have even a tooth extracted. 

4. The Organs of Circulation. The circulation of the 
blood is carried on by the heart, arteries, capillaries and 
veins. The blood constitutes the food of the tissues, and in 
supplying these finds its way to the most remote parts of 
the body. The circulation of the blood never ceases while 
life continues. It flows from the heart, bearing the elements 
of growth and sustenance. It returns to the heart, carrying 
with it the waste products. The arteries are the channels 
through which the rich, bright-red blood feeds the tissues. 
The veins are the tube-like canals through which the dark, 
impure blood returns. Between the final branches of the 
small arteries and the small veins lies a great network of 
capillaries. In these capillaries the elements of the food, 
digested and carried into the circulation, are incorporated 
in the living tissue. 

5. The System a Closed Sac. The heart and the 

three varieties of blood-vessels form a cavity in which the 
blood is confined. The arteries and veins, wifch the capil- 
laries, are a continuation of the heart. They form a complete 
circuit, so that the space within is continuous. The blood 
proper cannot pass through the coats of these vessels at 
any point. It parts with its nutrient material while it is 
flowing through the capillaries, but the blood itself cannot 
pass through the walls, unless they are injured or cut. The 
prick of a pin, if deep enough, will draw blood, because it 
pierces one or more of these small vessels. At the same time 
that it imparts its nourishment to the tissues, it receives from 
them their worn-out products. The vitiated blood, returning 
to the heart through the veins, is then sent by a separate 
system of vessels to the lungs, where it is brought in close 
relation with the air we breathe. Here the vital change of 



venous into arterial blood is effected, and it flows back to the 
heart purified and ready for further circulation. 

6. The Heart. The great central organ of blood circu- 
lation is a powerful pump made of muscular tissue. It is 
placed near the middle of the chest, between the lungs, which, 
in fact, almost sur- 
round it, there being 
only a small trian- 
gular portion in front 
uncovered. At this 
point the action of 
the heart can be 
readily examined. It 
is conical in form, 
and is placed ob- 
liquely, with the base 
upward, the apex 
pointing downwards 
and forward, toward 
the left side. The 
size of the heart var- 
ies in different per- 
sons, and according 
to age, but the size 
of the individual does 

not modify it. It F IG - 26 The Heart: -4, the right ventricle ; fi, the left 
* ventricle ; C, the right auricle ; D, the left auricle. 

is, however, usually 

smaller in the female. The size of one's fist is said to cor- 
respond with that of the heart. ^It continues to grow for 
some time after the full size of the body is attained, especially 
in the male. The average measurement in the adult is about 
five inches in length, three inches and a half from side to 
side in the broadest part, and two inches and a half from 
the front to the back surface. 


The heart is a hollow organ, and the cavity is divided into 
two separate compartments by a muscular wall running from 
top to bottom. Each compartment is divided into two parts, 
thus making four chambers. The upper chambers are called 
respectively the right and the left auricle. The lower are 
known as the right and left ventricles. 

The walls of the heart are made up chiefly of muscular 
tissue, in which are nerves and small blood-vessels to nourish 
the structure. The chambers are lined with a smooth, fibrous 
membrane, the endocardium. The heart is surrounded by a 
closed sac, which is also conical in shape, called the pericar- 
dium. The base of this sac is below, while at its upper part, 
or th'e part corresponding to the base of the heart, it is 
folded on to that organ, and becomes its outer covering; 
hence the heart is really surrounded by a closed bag, the 
inner layer of which is firmly attached, while the outer 
layer is large and loose. Between the two layers is a small 
amount of watery fluid to moisten the surfaces and prevent 
friction from the constant movements of the heart. 

7. The Valves Of the Heart.. The heart is a double 
organ, the two right chambers containing the dark and the 
two left the bright red blood. The right side receives into 
its auricle the venous blood througTr^tTm large \t:ii. 
from above and the other from below, the r<'iia cave 1 . As 
the auricle contracts, the blood is forced into the right 
ventricle through an opening in the partition between the 
two chambers. The opening is guarded by a valve, made 
up of three triangular folds of membrane, and hence called 
the tricuspid valve. As soon as the ventricle begins to 
contract this valve closes, and the blood is sent onward 
into a large vessel, the pulmonary artery, and this, dividing 
into two, carries the blood to the lungs. To prevont any 
return of blood when the ventricle relaxes, the pulmonary 



artery is provided with half-moon-shaped folds of membrane, 
the semi-lunar valves. 

The blood, having traversed the lungs, collects in the pul- 
monary veins, and is carried to the left side of the heart, 
where it is received into the left auricle. This circuit, from 
the right ventricle through the lungs and back to the left 
auricle, is called the short or pulmonary circulation. From 
the left auricle the blood is driven on through an opening in 

FlQ. 27. Cross section of the Heart, showing: A, tricuspid valve; 
B, mitral valve; C, semi-lunar valves of the pulmonary artery; D, 
semi-lunar valves of the aorta. 

another partition, into the left ventricle. The opening in this 
partition is also provided with a valve, called the mitral, 
because it is shaped like a bishop's mitre. 

The walls of the left ventricle are nearly three times as 
thick as those of the right. When the left ventricle con- 
tracts, the blood is sent into the first artery, the aorta, with 
sufficient force to carry it to every part of the system. Its 
return through the various veins, to the right side of the 
heart, completes the long or body circulation. Semi-lunar 


valves, similar to those guarding the pulmonary artery, but 
much stronger, are placed at the opening of the aorta. 

8. The Arteries. The strong elastic tubes which carry 
the blood from the heart to all parts of the body are called 
arteries. We have mentioned the aorta. This is the largest 
artery in the body. It receives the blood from the left ven- 
tricle, carries it along, and distributes it to its numerous 
branches. After leaving the heart, the aorta arches back- 
ward, like the curve on a walking-stick, and passes down the 
back part of the thorax into the abdomen, where it divides 
to supply the lower extremities. Along this course it gives 
off such important branches as those to the arms and head, 
and further on, it sends branches to supply the walls of the 
chest and the organs in the abdomen. These are the main 
branches from the aorta, like the limbs of a tree from the 
parent trunk. Follow them on, and we find, as in a tree, 
the branches divide and subdivide, growing smaller and 
smaller as we near their termination. Ultimately they he- 
come so small and so numerous as to form a close network. 
This network, at its finest parts, constitutes what are called 
the capillaries, or hair-like tubes. 

The web of the frog's foot affords a good example for 
seeing, under the microscope, the flow of blood through the 
capillaries. We can see the corpuscles wending their way 
in single file along these narrow passages, and occasionally 
swaying to and fro, stopping for a moment, but soon to be 
rushed on again with the ever-constant stream. 

9. The Veins. Gradually the blood in the capillaries, 
now dark and impure, is gathered into small tubes, called 
veins. As they proceed toward the heart, the veins join 
each other, becoming fewer in number, but- larger in size, 
until all those from the legs and abdomen are joined into one 
great vein, which opens into the right auricle at its lower 
part ; and those from the head and arms form another large 


vein, which opens into the same auricle at its upper part. 
These are the vena cavse already mentioned. * 

10. How the Blood is made to Flow. The action of 
the heart is entirely involuntary. It contracts and dilates 
with great regularity. Each contraction or beat of the heart 
forces the blood onward into the arteries. As it again dilates 
it sucks the blood from the veins into the auricle. While the 
heart supplies the chief moving power for circulating the 
blood, the arteries, by virtue of their elastic walls, assist and 
regulate the flow. With each beat of the heart the arteries 

A B c 

Fia. 28. Circulation of the Blood in the Web of a Frog's Foot, highly 
magnified. A, an artery; B, capillaries crowded with corpuscles, owing 
to a rupture just above, where the corpuscles are jammed into an adja- 
cent mesh ; C, a deeper vein. The black spots are pigment cells. 

expand, to receive the additional volume of blood. These 
impulses move along the arteries in waves, and can be felt 
in different parts of the body. They are known as the pulse. 
The physician usually feels the pulse at the wrist, because it 
is a convenient place. 

The venous blood flows along in a steady, even stream. 
The current from behind, pressing it on toward the heart, 
the squeezing of the veins by the muscles of the body gener- 
ally, and the suction of the heart, all tend to bring the blood 
back again. There is, therefore, not much actual pressure in 


the veins, and hence their walls are thinner than the arteries. 
They also lie nearer the surface of the body, where they are 
more exposed. But with little pressure there is little danger 
from loss of blood when injured. 

11. Effects of Alcohol on the Heart. The health and 
general welfare of our being depend upon the regular action 
of the heart, and continuous flow of the blood throughout the 
body. The heart is subject to a variety of derangements. 
These derangements may be of a temporary nature, and can 
usually be removed by rest and care ; or they may be due to 
some change of structure, causing permanent impairment of 
the functions of the heart. The heart may be temporarily 
reduced in its action through fear, fright or sudden bereave- 
ment; while again, there are many emotions attended with 
increased action of the heart. Certain drinks and various 
articles of diet increase the heart-beats. General weakness 
may be manifested by a low or irregular pulse. Digestive 
disturbances may have a marked effect upon the pulse. The 
heart is separated from the stomach only by the diaphragm, 
so that the pressing upward of an over-full stomach may 
distress it. 

Temporary disorders of the heart have generally an exciting 
cause, which, if kept up, may lead to a permanent change of 
structure. Among the most common of these exciting causes 
is the persistent use of alcoholic drinks and tobacco. Alco- 
hol invariably affects the heart's action. When first taken it 
increases the beats, and seems for a time to strengthen the 
heart. Soon, however, there will follow a weak, feeble con- 
dition of the pulse, with a feeling of depression throughout 
the whole system. It is then the habitual drinker will take 
an additional glass, another, and perhaps another, and so on 
day by day, until the alcohol habit has become established. 
Sir Benjamin Richardson, Bart., author of the Cantor Lec- 
tures, says, on this point : "A man who is very temperate, 


but who takes alcohol, feels most distinctly the effect of even 
a slight excess. Such a man, if he be tempted to move from 
the single glass of mild dinner ale a day to take a glass or 
two of wine, when he goes out to dinner, or to take a single 
glass of grog at night, is conscious of the evil influence the 
next day. He says, if he speaks . truly, that he was rather 
excited by the drink ; and he says, that when the stage of 
depression comes, that he feels ' all-overish, depressed, rather 
chilly, and not up to the mark.' He is tired, and he thinks 
he should be none the worse if he took an extra glass of ale 
to set him right. In nine cases out of ten he does take this 
extra glass of ale; it does set him what he calls right, and 
finding how easy a thing it is. to get over a slight excess, the 
next time he is tempted he ventures a little further. So the 
habit of taking too much begins in taking just a little, while 
being, indeed, very temperate, and while keeping in fashion 
with other folks. This is the beginning of woe." 

In speaking of the effects of alcohol upon muscle, we 
pointed out that it lessens muscular power exactly in propor- 
tion to the amount taken. Now, as the heart is a muscular 
organ, it will, of necessity, be similarly affected. More than 
this, the fatty change already mentioned as due to continued 
use of alcohol, is more apt to take place in the muscles of the 
heart than elsewhere. This disease is all the more serious, in 
that it is likely to affect the heart. Loaded with fat, it loses 
its strength, becomes enlarged and flabby, while its thickened 
valves are no longer sufficient. 

12. Effects of Alcohol on the Blood-vessels. By 

the increased action of the heart more work is put upon the 
arteries. The pulse, for a time, is stronger from over-stimula- 
tion. As soon, however, as this stimulating effect passes off, 
a period of depression follows, and the pulse is reduced beiow 
the standard. The delicate nerves which supply the blood- 
vessels and keep their muscular walls in good tone, are so 


affected by alcohol as to lose their influence, and allow the 
vessels to dilate. This is well marked in the capillaries, and 
its effect is apparent to an observer. The flushed face is an 
early indication of alcoholic indulgence. The coats of the 
capillaries relax so much that the face becomes quite red- 
dened. What is readily seen in the skin exists elsewhere. 
The same degree of congestion is uniform throughout the 
body, and nutrition is interfered with everywhere. 

This loss of power in the coats of the capillaries to contract 
may be temporary, but when a person becomes addicted to 
the use of alcohol, it will produce a permanent dilated con- 
dition of the small vessels. As a result, we see the red nose 
of the wine or brandy drinkers. It is the same paralyzed 
condition of the capillaries in the liver, brain and other inter- 
nal organs which leads to diseased conditions. 

Very often in chronic, though perhaps moderate, drinkers, 
the arteries, instead of being strong, elastic tubes, like new 
rubber hose, become hardened and unyielding, and are liable 
to give way. 

13. Effects of Tobacco on the Heart. The use of 

tobacco in any form has a depressing effect on the heart. It 
weakens its force, and often interferes with the regularity of 
its action. It is more marked in its effects on the young, 
the weak, or on those disposed to disease. The strong and 
healthy may seem to escape its effects, but when we know it 
imposes extra labor on the heart, upsets the nerve influence 
which keeps up its constant and uniform action, we know 
enough about it to pronounce it not only useless, but harmful. 
It is just possible, if the truth were known, it is the direct 
cause of many heart failures and other cases of sudden death 
from heart disease. 




1. Why we Breathe. In the preceding chapter we 
traced the circulation of the blood, and noticed that, in pass- 
ing through the capillaries, it gives to the cells of each tissue 
the food and fuel they require, while, at the same time, it 
receives from the tissues certain elements of decay. The 
arterial blood, freighted with oxygen, is changed into venous 
blood, laden with carbonic acid and other products of chemi 
cal change. In the round of circulation, the venous blood is 
carried to the lungs. To preserve the system in health, these 
impurities must be got rid of, and it is the office of the 
respiratory system to discharge this important duty, and to 
give back to the blood a fresh supply of oxygen from the 
air. The act of breathing is necessary for life. It might 
even be suspended for some minutes in rare instances, but 
the demand for air is imperative, and if not given, life is 

2. The Organs of Respiration. These consist of the 

lungs, the air passages and the pulmonary vessels, with their 
branches. They are situated in the chest, and with the heart 
and large blood-vessels, fill the thoracic cavity. 

3. The Lungs. There are two lungs, the right and the 
left. They are separated by the heart and large blood-vessels. 
Each lung is conical in shape, the apex fitting into the upper 
pointed cavity of the chest, immediately under the collar- 
bone, the base resting on the diaphragm. The outer surface 
is rounded, to fit the curve of the ribs. The inner surface is 



concave, and has a fissure, in which are the air-tubes and 
vessels entering the lungs. 

Each lung is divided into two lobes by a long, d^ep fissure. 
The upper lobe of the right lung is partially divided by a 
short fissure, so that it is said to have three lobes. The right 
lung is somewhat the larger, on account of the heart being 
placed a little to the left side. 

WINDPI PB ^ n substance the lung is 

of a light porous or spongy 
nature, and very elastic. 
This lightness of texture 
is largely due to the pres- 
ence of air, which is never 
entirely expelled, even 
when we force out all we 
can. Examined minutely, 
we find the lung to consist 
of lobules, closely connected 
together, but yet quite dis- 
tinct from one another. 
Each lobule is formed of 
one of the divisions of a 
bronchial tube, with its 
air-cells, and of the divisions of the pulmonary vessels. In 
each are also found nutritious vessels and nerves. There are 
a large number of air-cells to one branch of a small bronchial 
tube. They cluster around it like a bunch of grapes on a 
stem. If the stem were hollow, and each grape an empty sac 
communicating with it, to blow into the stem would give a 
fair example of how the air fills up the air-cells every time we 
take in a breath. Think how small these air-cells must be, 
when seventeen hundred of them cluster around one small 
tube. Yet each cell is separated from the other by a fine, 
thin partition. In this delicate, thin wall is a dense network 

FIG. 29. The Lungs and Heart, 
viewed in front. 



of capillaries, and it is here the dark, impure blood, while 
passing through, parts with the carbonic acid, and in return 
receives from the air the required oxygen. As in the general 
system, this network collects into larger vessels, and the 
blood, now changed to a bright red color, passes on through 
the pulmonary veins into the heart. 

FIG. 30. Outline of the Lungs, with the Larynx, Windpipe 
and Bronchial Tubes. 

4. The Air Passages. Extending from the back of the 
tongue to the root of the lungs are the air passages, through 
which the air rushes in each act of breathing. The first part, 
the trachea, is a single tube, which divides into two branches 
at the lower part of the jieck, one for each lung. Each 


branch divides into a number of smaller ones, like the 
branches "of a tree, until they terminate in the delicate air- 
cells just described. 

The windpipe is a hollow tube, about four to five inches 
long, made up of fibrous tissue in which are situated rings of 
cartilage. These rings are not quite perfect, but more like a 
horseshoe in shape, being incomplete at the back. They are 
easily felt in front. If the rings were complete at the back, 
the gullet could not expand so readily when we swallow food 
The presence of cartilage in the tube 
prevents the sides from coming together 
by the suction of air. It also protects 
the passage from any outside pressure. 

Where it enters the chest the wind- 
pipe divides into the right and left bron- 
chial tubes. At the root of the lung 
each tube divides and subdivides, until 
it spreads throughout the entire organ. 

The larynx is a triangular-shaped box 
of cartilage situated at the top of the 
windpipe. The cartilage projects for- 

Fio. 31. Front view of the 

Larynx: i, upper ring of ward, especially in the male, in whom 
windpipe; 2, 3, cartilage of ft ^ s usua lly' quite prominent. This is 

the larynx (figure 3 is on the 

Adam's apple); 4, epiglottis; commonly called " Adam s apple." The 
M, membrane uniting car- larynx has been called the voice box, 
because here the various sounds of the 
human voice are produced. 

The entrance to the larynx is a triangular opening at the 
root of the tongue, called the glottis, and this entrance is 
guarded by the epiglottis, which was mentioned in connection 
with the pharynx. Within the larynx, on each side, the 
lining membrane forms two folds, stretching from front to 
back, and separated by a well-marked hollow. These are 
the vocal cords. The lower folds are strengthened by fibrous 


tissue placed within the fold. These are called the true vocal 
cords, being alone employed in the production of the voice. 
The upper folds are called the false vocal cords. 

5. The Voice. There is a V-shaped space or chink 
between the true vocal cords, through which the air passes 
to and from the lungs. This chink may be narrowed or 
widened by the action of muscles, while at the same time 
the cords are made tight or loose like the cords of a musical 
instrument. It is this power to vary the size of the chink 
and the tension of the cords which produces the many differ- 
ent sounds the human voice is capable 
of uttering. In quiet breathing the 
air makes no sound, but the moment 
we tune up the instrument by tighten- 
ing the cords and lessening the chink, 
the air makes a noise. The size and 
length of the vocal cords are not the 
same in every person, and hence the 
variety in the pitch of the voice. A 
short cord on any instrument gives 
a high pitch, and a long cord gives 

j Tx xl. FIG. 32. -The Larynx as seen 

forth a deep Or low note. It IS the from above : a, 6, c, cartilages 

same in the human voice. In women of the larynx; d, epiglottis 
and children, the larynx being smaller, 

the cords are shorter than in men, consequently their voices 
have a higher pitch. 

A musical sound is a prolonged vibration of the vocal 
cords. The number and variety of sounds produced in sing- 
ing depend upon the length of the cords and their different 
degrees of tension. 

Singing is an exceedingly useful exercise in school ; it 
pleases the sense ; it elevates the mind ; it exercises the 
muscles of the chest; it trains and develops the vocal cords 
and increases the capacity of the larynx so that the child 


becomes what we may call an acquired singer; and lastly, 
what is also of great importance, it moderates and improves 
the quality of many voices which would otherwise be harsh 
and unpleasant. 

Up to a certain period the pitch of the voice is much the 
same in both sexes. About the age of fourteen the larynx 
and vocal cords begin to grow rapidly, and the voice in 
the boy " cracks." Frequently the cords grow so rapidly, 
and become slack so suddenly, that a boy often wakens 
in the morning to find his voice has changed. 

Voice is the sound produced by the vocal cords. Animals 
can produce sound, but they cannot speak. Speech is the 
voice modified by the mouth, tongue, teeth, lips and nose, 
and is a faculty of the brain which belongs only to man. 
Parrots and certain other birds have been taught to imitate 
sounds, but they do not possess the true faculty of speech. In 
whispering, the sounds are made by the vibration of the lips. 

G. The Pleura. The lungs are enveloped in a closely 
attached serous membrane, called the pleura. Each lung has 
a separate covering. This membrane is reflected from the 
lung to the inner walls of the chest, and forms a complete 
lining to the thoracic cavity. It is also a closed sac like 
the other serous membranes of the body, and contains more 
or less watery fluid. The regular expansion and contraction 
of the chest causes a certain amount of motion between the 
walls and the lungs. The smooth pleura, with the contained 
fluid, assists the motion and prevents friction. Inflammation 
of the pleura is called pleurisy. 

7. The Act of Breathing. The space within the chest 
is increased on all sides by muscular action. One set of 
the oblique muscles of the sides draws the ribs upward, 
pressing the breast bone forward, while at the same time 
the diaphragm descends against the contents of the abdo- 
men. This enlargement of the chest cavity causes * rwh t> 


air through the windpipe to fill up the lungs as they expand 
to occupy the increased space. We call this breathing in 
air or an inspiration. When this act is completed, the 
diaphragm at once ascends and the ribs are drawn down 
by another set of oblique muscles, bringing the lungs back 
to their ordinary size and forcing out the air. This is called 
breathing out or expiration. Tinder ordinary conditions the 
act of breathing is uniform and at the rate of about seven- 
teen times to the minute, or about once to every four beats of 
the heart. If the heart is made to beat more rapidly by work, 
exercise or excitement, the breathing is also more rapid. 

Breathing may be varied in other ways. In sighing, for 
instance, there is a prolonged inspiration followed by an 
expiration more or less audible. Laughing and crying are 
rapid, short contractions of the diaphragm. We distinguish 
them by the appearance of the face amd the sound of the 
voice. In coughing and sneezing there is a sudden and 
forcible expulsion of the air intended to dislodge and carry 
out some offending substance either through the mouth or 
nose. Hiccough is a sudden spasm of the diaphragm, causing 
the air to rush against the closed glottis, producing a char- 
acteristic sound. Yawning is similar to sighing, but the air 
is drawn in through the mouth and the jaw lowered in a 
characteristic manner. 

8. The Change of Elements in the Lungs. The 
impurities in the venous blood brought to the lungs are 
carbonic acid in the form of a gas, water in the form of 
vapor mixed with certain organic matter, and slight traces 
of ammonia, also a gas. The air which reaches the lungs 
contains two gases, oxygen and nitrogen. The former is 
the life-giving element. Undiluted oxygen is so strong that 
if we place an animal in a jar of this gas it is exhilarated 
for a little while, and runs about with great animation, but 
it very soon dies chemically burnt to death. Nature has 


provided against this by diluting the oxygen with nitrogen, 
an inert gas. These gases exist in the air in the propor- 
tion of one part of oxygen to four parts of nitrogen. There 
is also of necessity, since animals are constantly breathing it 
out, a trace of carbonic acid gas. 

There exists a well-known chemical law amongst gases that 
when separated only by a thin moist animal membrane, they 
will commingle. Such an arrangement is found in the lungs 
a very thin membrane or partition, on the one side of 
which are the gases of the air and on the other the gases 
in the impure blood. The process of exchange is therefore 
easily understood. The blood gives up its carbonic acid, its 
watery vapor with the organic matter dissolved in it and 
a trace of ammonia, while it receives in return a new 
supply of oxygen, which is carried to the heart and thence 
distributed to the tissues. The air, in parting with the 
required oxygen, receives from the blood its elements of 
impurity, and these escape with the expired air. Carbonic 
acid gas will not support combustion, that is, a lighted 
candle will go out if placed in a jar filled with this gas. 
The same will happen if we breathe into a jar and dip in 
a lighted taper, hence we know this gas is present in the 
breath. Watery vapor can be detected by breathing on a 
mirror or any highly polished substance. It collects more 
readily in a cool room; indeed, in very cold weather it 
condenses so rapidly "that we can see our own breath as 
we walk in the open air. The organic matter that escapes 
by the lungs rapidly changes and becomes putrid. Breathe 
into a jar, close it and put it aside. In a few hours it will 
have a very rank smell, owing to the presence of decomposed 
organic matter. 

JL-& The Effects of Impure Air. It may be taken for 
granted generally that anything the body casts off would, if 
retained, injure the system. Ke-brea thing the same air over 


and over again would soon destroy life. " The Black Hole of 
Calcutta" was a dungeon in which there were only two 
narrow windows. Here one hundred and fifty-six English 
soldiers were shut up, with scarcely room enough to hold 
them. At the end of eight hours only twenty-three remained 
alive. During a storm at sea, a captain ordered the hatches 
closed, and in six hours ninety of the passengers were dead. 
The high diffusive power of gases under ordinary conditions 
prevents such calamities. The carbonic acid gas spreads 
rapidly throughout the surrounding air, so that if the space 
in which we are breathing is not too confined, or too tightly 
closed up, it quickly becomes so diluted as to do no harm. 
To prevent its too great accumulation in the atmosphere 
.there is a wise provision of nature by which plants and 
trees take in carbonic acid as we do oxygen, and give out 
oxygen as we do carbonic acid. In some places carbonic 
acid gas is found in such large quantities that it is not 
readily diffused or used up, and collects in great volumes. 
We find this at the bottom of old wells, over fermentation 
vats, or in the "choke damp" of coal mines. 

It is estimated that from twenty to thirty cubic inches of 
air enter the lungs at each breath, or from three hundred to 
four hundred cubic feet in twenty-four hours. By a knowl- 
edge of these facts, it may r jadily be determined how much 
cubic space is required for school-rooms, churches, and other 
public buildings. 

It has been observed that unbreathed air containing the 
same percentage of carbonic acid as the vitiated air of a close 
living room, is not so poisonous in its effects upon the system. 
It is evident, therefore, that it is important to get rid of the 
organic matter coming off from the lungs and the skin. 

In cities and towns there are other impurities in the air 
which are dangerous to health. Sewer-gas, poisoned air from 
cess-pools and drains, the impure air from manufacturing 


places, such as chemical works, soap and bone factories, 
are all harmful, and often spread such diseases as cholera, 
typhoid fever and diphtheria. " Disease germs " float in the 
air. and are carried from place to place. 

-^ Ventilation. Of the many sources of impurity we 
have already given enough to show the necessity for a con- 
stant and abundant supply of pure, fresh air in dwelling 
houses, schools, halls, churches, etc. The rapidity with 
which the oxygen in a room is taken up will depend upon 
the number of persons occupying the room. We must also 
take into consideration the amount consumed by fires, gas 
and lamps. Then, too, it must be remembered that each 
individual is giving off a quantity of impure material, which 
will accumulate and become foul. The drowsiness, headache 
and general feeling of languor and discomfort experienced in 
a badly-ventilated room are attributable rather to the pres- 
ence of this noxious matter than to the want of oxygen. 
No system of ventilation is complete unless, in addition to 
entrances for fresh air, there are exits for foul air. 

It is estimated that each individual should have for his 
allowance about eight hundred cubic feet of fresh air, and 
that this should be renewed at the rate of one cubic foot 
per minute. To renew this in sufficient quantity, without 
draught and without lowering the temperature, is the great 
object to be attained by ventilation. No system is perfect 
that does not fulfil these requirements. 

In summer, little difficulty is met with where there are 
plenty of windows and doors. These give lots of space for 
the entrance and outflow of air. Besides, in warm weather 
it is not necessary to keep the heat confined in the room, 
and as the temperature of the room and the outside air are 
nearly alike, draughts are not very noticeable, and, if felt, 
are not so severe, the atmosphere being soft and mild. The 
winter season is the time when proper ventilation is most 


needed. Doors and windows cannot be left open with im- 
punity. During recess, or whenever a room is unoccupied 
for a short time, they should be thrown open for a few 
minutes, but, strictly speaking, the air should be warmed 
before it is brought into the room, and the foul air drawn 
off through openings in the walls. These openings should be 
large, and placed low down, so as not to carry off the newly 
admitted fresh air, which, being warm, rapidly ascends. 

Various systems of ventilation exist from which we may 
choose, but in making a selection expert advice should be 
followed. In this connection it may be stated that dwellings 
should never be built over soil which is polluted by organic 
matter, such as decaying vegetable matter. Decomposition 
of animal and vegetable material is attended with the pro- 
duction of poisonous gases. When a dwelling is placed over 
such matter, foul gases will rise and penetrate the building. 
In winter, especially, the heat of the house tends to draw 
those gases through the lower floor, when they will ascend 
into all parts of the house. 

10. How the Heat of the Body is kept up. Body- 
heat is generated or produced by the oxidation or burning 
of certain materials in the body. The heart and lungs are 
not stoves for providing heat and distributing it to the body, 
but by their combined influence the red corpuscles of the 
blood are made capable of producing changes in the system 
which result in heat. They are the oxygen carriers and 
give it out to the tissues, where it unites with certain 
elements in the form of combustion. The mysteries of life 
have not so far been revealed sufficiently to show exactly 
in what proportion certain materials form the fuel. Not 
unlikely it is to some extent the worn-out material, but 
chiefly the refuse of nutrition. The evidences of economy 
shown in the human body, and in its various functions, 
support the belief that it is the remnants of the nutritious 


material after the cells composing the body have received 
what they require for their growth and development, which 
form a large part of the fuel of the body. The broken- 
down cells which have formed a part of the living structure, 
like a worn-out building, may be still used as fuel, but at 
the same time we know that when much heat is carried 
off from the body, as in cold climates, there is a desire 
for carbonaceous food. 

While the lungs are not the source of heat, they are the 
portal by which the oxygen necessary for combustion enters 
the body, and if the lungs fail in their duty the supply of 
heat to the body is affected. See how a brisk walk in the 
open air, by producing a more rapid breathing, starts the 
flame of life into a greater glow. 

11. The Need of Clothing. The production of heat 
in the body, and its loss by radiation, etc., are so evenly 
balanced that the internal temperature in health varies but 
a trifle. A man may travel from the extreme north, where 
it is intensely cold, down to the hot climate of the Equator, 
and not vary one degree of heat within his body The ther- 
mometer will register close upon the normal heat, which is 
98f F. We wear clothing to help in adapting ourselves 
to the varying climates. In cold climates, plenty of warm 
woollens and furs are needed to prevent the body-heat from 
escaping. In hot climates, light goods open in texture are 
more suitable, because they help to conduct off the body-heat, 
while they protect the skin from the rays of the hot sun. 

12. Effects of Alcohol on Respiration. When speak- 
ing of the effects of alcohol on the skin, we noticed that it 
caused a dilatation of the capillaries all over the system. 
We are now able to understand what this means with regard 
to the lungs. A dilated condition of the almost endless 
number of capillaries surrounding the thousands upon thou- 
sands of air cells would mean the loading of the lungs with 


a large amount of extra blood, which, if frequently repeated 
or kept up for a length of time, would cause a congestion of 
those organs. How often do we hear of excessive drinkers 
having attacks of severe cold, pleurisy and inflammation of 
the lungs, which, if not immediately fatal, may lead on to 
that most dreaded disease consumption. 

Besides being predisposed by the use of alcohol to those 
diseases, the inebriate is more subject to them from the fact 
of his more frequent exposure to cold and damp. Often 
tT'''iiuj about with his clothes wet and with an empty stomach, 
excepting for the whiskey it contains, it is little wonder he 
is ultimately overtaken with the seeds of disease which take 
root in one of the most vital parts. 

We have seen further that alcohol decreases animal heat 
and lessens power to resist cold. A general chill may mean 
a congested condition of some of the internal organs, and 
most probably the lungs. If we drive the blood from one 
part, as, for instance, the skin, it must appear in greater 
quantities somewhere else. 

It is not while the stimulating effect of alcohol is felt that 
a chill is likely to occur, but after the rapid loss of heat 
by radiation and inactivity of body from general depression 
have lowered the temperature below the normal. Reaction 
in these cases sets in so slowly that it is often many hours, 
and even davs, before the man feels the same warmth and 
comfort of body he experienced before his debauch. 

No wonder that such abuse of the system leads to derange- 
ment of function and irregularity of blood supply to the 
various organs. Xo wonder that drunkards succumb more 
readily to epidemic diseases than do total abstainers. It has 
been observed over and over again in cholera-infected districts 
there is always a larger percentage of deaths amongst those 
addicted to the use of alcoholic beverages, than amongst those 
who abstain from all such drinks. 


Let us follow up the effects of alcohol on the respiration of 
the moderate though regular tippler. The frequent engorge- 
ment of the capillaries of the lungs leads to a permanent 
dilated condition, with increase of surrounding tissues and 
thickening of the cell walls. Increase the thickness of this 
partition and immediately the free exchange of gases is 
interfered with. The blood is not properly purified, and 
goes back into the system already loaded with the, impuri- 
ties it is intended to pick up. The heart and lungs take 
on increased action, in order to compensate for the loss of 
vitality in the fluid. Breathing becomes more labored and fre- 
quent, and often wheezy. The whole system lacks endurance. 

Lord Wolseley, on his Red River Expedition, did not allow 
spirits to his men, although they had to work hard and 
were sometimes wet through for days together. What was 
the report upon the sanitary condition and behaviour of 
these men ? " Up early, hard at work all day, rowing or 
portaging from 5 a.m. to 8 p.m., with a short interval for 
breakfast and dinner, nothing to eat but salt pork and 
biscuit, nothing to drink but tea, yet they looked as healthy 
as possible, and when they reached Fort Francis there was 
not one sick man amongst them." 

13. Cigarette Smoking. Because a cigarette seems the 
most innocent form of using tobacco, it is often the way a boy 
begins its use, while at the same time it is, perhaps, the most 
harmful. The smoke from a cigarette is not so strong nor so 
irritating to the mucous lining of the mouth as that from a 
cigar or pipe, and, as a consequence, it is usually inhaled into 
the lungs. In this manner the poison fumes of tobacco, and 
often of other narcotics as, for instance, opium in a Turkish 
cigarette enter more directly into the system, and not only 
irritate the lung tissue, but vitiate the blood, and hence the 
whole system. 

Fie. 33. Diagram illustrating the general arrangement 
of the Nervous System. 




1. The Organs of the Nervous System. In speaking 

of the nervous system, reference is made to the brain, spinal 
cord, the nerves distributed to every part of the body, and to 
ganglia, found in certain parts. The brain and spinal cord 
are continuous through the large opening at the base of the 
skull. They form the cerebro- spinal centre or axis. Their 
structure is so soft and so easily crushed, it is essential they 
should be well protected ; they are therefore inclosed in bony 
cavities. They consist of two kinds of matter, a white fibrous 
portion and a gray vascular portion. 

2. The Brain. The brain is a mass of white fibres, over- 
laid with cells of gray matter, and lodged within the strong 
bony walls of the skull. It consists of two parts, the cere- 
brum, situated at the summit and in front, and the cerebellum, 
placed below and behind. 

The weight of the brain ranges from forty to forty-seven 
ounces in the female, and from forty-six to fifty-three ounces 
in the male. The weight increases rapidly during early child- 
hood. After the seventh year it grows less rapidly. From 
sixteen to twenty the increase is still more slow. Between 
thirty and forty the weight begins slowly to decrease. The 
weight of the brain in man is greater than in any of the 
lower animals, except the elephant and whale. As a general 
rule, the size of the brain indicates the intellectual capacity 
of the individual, but there are some striking exceptions. 
The size of the cerebrum is a more reliable guide in deter- 
mining the mental power, but even this is not always a 



correct indication of the mental capacity. The shape of 
the head affords no guide to the character or mental endow- 
ments, as it may be the result of external pressure. But 
when the front and top parts of the head that is, that 
portion in front of the ears are deep, high and broad, it 
is evidence of a large cerebrum, and generally indicative 
of a high degree of brain power. The skull is not of the 

same thickness in all 
persons. Over the 
eye-brows there is a 
space between the 
two tables of bone. 
The extent and depth 
of this cavity cannot 
be determined by out- 
ward observation. A 
prominent forehead 
is often due to a 
large frontal space. 

The gray matter 
covers the white por- 
tion, and is next to 
the bone; but it is 
not spread out on 
an even surface, nor 
does it present on 
its outside a uniform 
surface. There are a number of rounded edges, called con- 
volutions, separated by deep furrows. These furrows are 
merely spaces formed by the convolutions dipping down and 
returning back in a sort of a fold, just as a seamstress would 
make a ruffle. These folds vary in depth in different parts 
of the brain and in different persons. The gray matter not 
only covers the surface of the convolutions, but dips down 

Fio. 34. Upper surface of the Brain, showing the 
convolutions and its double structure. 


into these dividing lines, so that the two surfaces of the 
gray matter are in contact. The quantity of gray matter in 
the brain is the true measure of brain power. Not only 
does the depth of the folds vary in different brains, but also 
the thickness of the gray matter. To ascertain, therefore, 
the extent and amount of gray matter, it would be necessary 
to open out the convoluted mass and measure its thickness. 
In view of these facts, the value of phrenology, as practised 
by bump-feelers, may be duly estimated. To define a per- 
son's character and mental ability by the outward appearance 
of the skull is impossible. In order to arrive at a correct 
estimate, it would be necessary to know the thickness of the 
skull, the depth of the frontal space, x he thickness of the 
gray matter, and the depth to which the layer dips down 
between the convolutions. 

3. Function of the Gray Matter of the Brain. The 
gray matter of the brain is the seat of the will. Here, in a 
measure, is generated the nerve force. It is the seat of the 
intellectual faculties, the throne of reason. At this seat of 
power resides the authority by which the body is governed. 
Messages are continually arriving in the brain from every 
part of the body, far and near, regarding the welfare of the 
several parts or dependencies. At these headquarters due 
notice is taken of everything concerning its welfare, and 
orders are issued to muscles and other tissues, by which the 
interests of the body are looked after. The gray matter is 
made up of minute cells and of vascular tissue. 

4. Function of the White Matter of the Brain. 
The white fibrous matter upon which the gray is laid receives 
the directions and instructions from the seat of power, and by 
white cords laid to every part of the frame, like telegraph 
wires, transmits the nervous influence to whatever part of the 
body it may be necessary. By the same nerve wires, intel- 
ligence is received from every station in the body, even the 


most outlying parts. The force generated by the brain cells 
and thus employed is like electricity; but it is something 
more, which no physiologist has yet been able to define. 

5. The Cerebrum. The upper and front part of the 
skull contains the cerebrum. It forms about seven-eighths 
of the total weight of the brain. It is divided by a deep 
fissure into two halves, the right and left hemispheres. 
Each half is in itself a brain, the one half supplementing 
the other, as one hand or one eye does the other. Injury 
to the brain, with loss of brain substance on one side, does 
not necessarily cause loss of brain power. 

6. The Cerebellum. Immediately under the back part 
of the cerebrum, but separated from it by a firm membrane, 
lies the cerebellum, or lesser brain. It is about the size of 
the fist. The convolutions are not so irfegular as in the 
cerebrum. The gray matter dips down into the white sub- 
stance in parallel ridges, and is so arranged as to give its 
internal appearance a resemblance to a tree with branches 
and leaves. This is called the arbor vitce, or tree of life. 
The cerebellum is the nerve centre for controlling the volun- 
tary muscles. It is also made up of two halves. 

7. The Medulla Oblongata. The medulla oblongata is 
the upper thickened end of the spinal cord, and forms the 
connecting link between it and the brain. It is about an 
inch and a quarter in length, and is thicker in its upper than 
its lower part. It also is divided into two symmetrical halves. 
The medulla oblongata consists of white and gray matter. 
The gray matter, which in the brain is on the surface, and 
in the spinal cord is in the interior, is continued up from the 
latter in the interior until it reaches the upper part of the 
medulla, when it begins to show on the surface. 

The medulla oblongata is a very important centre, for from 
it pass off the nervps which control breathing, swallowing 
and the action of the heart. Injury here is very sudden and 
serious in its effects. 


8. The Coverings of the Brain. Three membranes 
envelop the brain, an outer, middle and inner. The outer is 
closely attached to the bone, and forms the periosteum. It is 
a tough, strong membrane, composed of fibrous and connec- 
tive tissue. Besides lining the skull, it forms a strong upright 
partition between the two hemispheres of the cerebrum, and 
also the floor upon which the back part of this portion of the 

FIG. 35. Vertical section of the Brain. 

brain rests. This floor for the cerebrum is the roof for the 

The inner membrane is a thin, firm tissue, in close contact 
with the brain, and dipping down with it into the furrows. 
It is abundantly supplied with meshes of blood-vessels, and 
many of these extend into the brain substance to nourish it. 

The middle is a very thin membrane, so thin that it has 
been likened to a spider's web. It envelops the brain loosely, 
and is more or less separated from the other membranes by 
loose tissue and by fluifJ The quantity of fluid varies in 


different parts of the brain, and according to the fulness of 
the blood-vessels. 

9. Protection of the Brain. The provision made to 
protect the soft yielding brain from concussion requires some 
notice. We have spoken of the protection afforded by the 
smooth, round skull, with its two tables thickened and 
strengthened at the most exposed parts. Within the skull, 
this jelly-like mass does not lie like a lump of jelly. It is 
supported in several ways. The front part rests upon a 
shelving of bone, the roof of the nasal cavity. The middle 
lobes have each a snug little cavity of their own, and the back 
part rests on the flooring of membrane. The upright parti- 
tion prevents one hemisphere from pressing upon the other, 
and is a supporting column. Within the brain substance 
itself are a number of small cavities containing fluid, and 
these cavities communicate with the outer spaces. By this 
arrangement the pressure is equalized, and as the fluid natu- 
rally tends towards the lowest parts, the brain in reality rests 
upon a perfect water-bed. 

Complete as this is, it is not the whole of that all-wise 
arrangement by which the nerve centres are protected. The 
cavities of the brain communicate with the cavity of the 
spinal canal, so that the fluid can pass from one to the other. 
Hence it is called the cerebro-spinal fluid. If the blood 
supply in the head is from any cause excessive, some of this 
fluid finds its way out of the brain along the cord into the 
spinal canal. When the blood pressure within the brain is 
lessened, the fluid wells up again to occupy the space. Thus 
the equilibrium is constantly maintained. 

10. The Spinal Cord. Safely enclosed in the bony 
canal formed by the vertebrae is the second portion of the 
cerebro-spinal centre. It is a cylindrical cord of nerve tissue 
about three-quarters of an inch in diameter and seventeen 
inches long, tapering at its lower extremity. It does not 


nearly fill up the canal. White and gray matter make up 
the cord, as in the brain, but the white matter is placed 
outside and the gray within. It commences at the large 
opening at the base of the skull, the part above this being 
the medulla oblongata. 

The spinal cord is composed of two lateral halves, formed 
by a fissure in front and behind. From each half nerves 
branch off, and dividing and sub-dividing, are distributed 
to the trunk and limbs of the body. 

Surrounding the cord are membranes similar to those of 
the brain, only the outer membrane is not attached to the 
bone, as in the brain. Such attachment would prevent the 
several motions of the spine. This outer membrane of the 
spinal cord is a loose sheath, attached at the top and at 
intervals to the bony walls. Within this sheath is the 
cerebro-spinal fluid, so that the cord is virtually suspended 
in a flexible tube of fluid, and is thus protected from injury 
or shock. 

11. The Nerves. Running throughout the body every- 
where can be found slender, white, glistening cords. These 
are the nerves. They look somewhat like the tendons of the 
muscles, only smaller. They are not so tough and strong. 
A nerve trunk is made up of a number of fibres running side 
by side, like the threads in a skein of silk. These fibres are 
individual nerves, which, bound for the same locality, are 
held together by connective tissue in a single trunk. 

Besides the nerves which come off from the brain and 
spinal cord, there are others which have their centre in knots 
of nerve tissue scattered through the body, called ganglia. 
These are all connected together and form the sympathetic 
system. There are therefore three classes of nerves, spinal, 
cranial and sympathetic. All three classes convey impres- 
sions of a twofold kind. There are those fibres along which 
impressions travel to the brain, and by which it is made 



conscious of what is going on. These are called sensory 
nerves. Also, fibres by which impressions travel from the 
brain and cause muscles to contract or cells to take on 
increased action. These are called motor nerves. 

12. Spinal Nerves. Thirty-one pairs of nerves are given 
off by the spinal cord. The openings in the bones of the 
spine on each side allow them to pass out. Each nerve has 
two roots, one in front and one behind. The anterior root 
consists of motor fibres, the posterior of sensory fibres. The 
two roots unite or are bound together in one sheath. If the 
anterior root were cut or destroyed by disease, the person 

FIG. 36. Section of Spinal Cord, with roots of spinal nerves. Front view. 

would lose the power of motion in the part supplied by that 
nerve, that is, that part would be paralyzed. If the posterior 
root were divided, the power of feeling would be lost. The 
spinal nerves, after leaving the spinal column, are formed 
into several groups, where they join together and then branch 
off to different parts. This collection of nerves is called a 

13. Cranial Nerves. Arising from the base of the 
brain, the medulla oblongata, and one pair from the upper 
part of the spinal cord, are the twelve pairs of cranial 
nerves. They all emerge from the skull, through small 
channels in the bone. Nearly all of these nerves have their 


deep origin in the medulla oblongata, although the superficial 
origin of some of them is some distance off. 

THE FIRST PAIR are known as the olfactory., or nerves of 
smell. They pass out through the roof of the nose, and are 
distributed to the lining of the nostrils. 

THE SECOND PAIR, or optic nerves, are distributed to the 
eye-balls, and are the nerves of vision. These nerves do not 
pass directly forward, one to each eye, but cross fibres with 
each other before they leave the skull, making PJ close union 
between the eyes. 


supply the various muscles by which the eyes are moved. 
These are called the motores oculi. 

THE FIFTH PAIR are called the trifacial, on account of each 
dividing into three branches. These are the largest nerves 
given off from the brain, and supply the skin of the face and 
some of the deeper parts, such as the teeth, roof of mouth, 
soft palate, tongue, etc. One branch supplies the sense of 
taste. It is usually some of the branches of these nerves that 
are affected in people who suffer from neuralgia of the face 
and tooth-ache. 

THE SEVENTH PAIR, or facial, are the moving nerves of all 
the muscles of expression in the face. They usually work 
in perfect unisqn and cause the muscles to draw evenly, as in 
laughing, singing, whistling, etc. When one of these nerves 
is paralyzed it gives a very odd expression to the face. 

THE EIGHTH PAIR, or auditory, pass to the inner ears, and 
are the nerves of hearing. 

THE NINTH PAIR, or glosso-pharyngeal, are distributed to the 
mucous membrane of the pharynx and neighboring parts. 

THE TENTH PAIR, or pneumo-gastric, are the most widely 
distributed of all the cranial nerves. They send branches to 
the windpipe, lungs, gullet, stomach, heart, etc. 


THE ELEVENTH PAIR are called the accessory, because they 
join the tenth pair. They also supply the organs of voice. 

THE TWELFTH PAIE are called the hypo-glossal, or regulators 
of the tongue. 

14. The Sympathetic System. In this system we have 
the nerves of organic life. It is a double chain of ganglia, 
with nerves connecting them. They are situated on each side 
of the backbone, from the head to the lower extremity of the 
spine, w r ith extensions into the chest and abdomen. They 
consist of soft, gray matter, and supply the organs on which 
life depends, as the stomach, lungs, heart, etc. They control 
the blood-vessels, and have frequent connections with the 
cranial and spinal nerves. Blushing is a sympathetic act, 
allowing the blood-vessels of the face to enlarge and fill with 
blood. Fear, on the other hand, blanches the face, by the 
sympathetic nerves contracting the blood-vessels and driving 
out the blood. 

This intimate relationship of all the nerves of the body, 
keeping every part in free communication and in close 
sympathy with every other part, explains the designation, 
"sympathetic system." By the sympathetic system, the 
brain has free intercourse with every part of the human 
frame, and by this link exercises control over all the im- 
portant functions and vital operations of the body. 

15. Growth and Development of the Brain. As we 
have seen, the growth of the brain in early childhood is very 
rapid. As years advance, the increase in general bulk is not 
so marked. There is usually, however, a continuous growth, 
but it is largely confined to the gray matter. As in other 
structures of the body, so in the brain, proper exercise is 
necessary. The amount of gray matter, with the correspond- 
ing amount of intellectual strength, depends largely on a due 
exercise of the faculties of the mind. The amount and kind 
of exercise should be regulated by those properly trained and 


educated to discharge so important a duty. While aiding in 
the development of the mind, let us remember it is necessary 
to keep the body in a sound state. The various organs must 
be in a sound condition to perform their proper functions. 
The body itself must be supplied with the requisite food. 
The blood must be duly purified by the constant supply of 
pure air. The muscles must be daily exercised. The skin 
must be kept clean. In a word, none of the functions of life 
must be wanting in a healthy performance of their respective 
duties. To exercise the brain, and pay no regard to the body 
generally, is sure to result in unhealthy development. This 
is particularly the case in early childhood. 

All children are not born with the same power for brain 
development. Some are born without the germs for much 
future brain power or active intelligence. Others are born 
with the elements which produce very fertile minds. The 
careful teacher will discriminate between these two classes, 
and he will rate the varying grades of capacity in the young 
under his control. He will be guided by this consideration 
in directing the mental exercises allotted to each. A bright, 
active mind requires no urging, and often should be held in 
restraint ; while the sluggish brain must be stirred by encour- 
agement and stimulated by example. 

Overwork of a too active brain is sometimes the direct 
cause of acute disease of that organ, with a fatal termination. 
In other instances, too much brain-work leads to degenera- 
tion of the over-grown gray matter, and the promising child 
becomes sluggish in mind or deficient in intellect, and even 
in some cases an idiot. It must never be forgotten that 
physical exercise is just as important to the growing child 
as brain-work, and in many cases more so. When a quick, 
clever child becomes indifferent to play, and prefers to sit in 
dreamy idleness, his brain is not in a healthy condition, and 


requires careful attention. No child or youth should be 
allowed to isolate himself. 

The same uniformity of exercise in brain and body gener- 
ally must be observed all through the active years of life. If 
the ardent student, in preparing himself for an examination, 
fails to take physical exercise and give his brain an oppor- 
tunity to rest, the chances are he will not only fail in his 
examination, but permanently impair his mental strength by 
the over-work of the brain. 

16. Rest and Sleep. The necessity for rest at stated 
periods is most imperative. Brain work will be better done 
when due attention is paid to regular rest. It is the same as 
in the use of muscles. The skilled workman can continue his 
employment only for a certain time. The laborer does more 
and better work when he takes an occasional rest. Besides 
this voluntary rest of the brain, nature has provided a rest 
which must be taken by everyone. In sound sleep the brain 
gets complete and perfect rest. Any attempt to shorten the 
hours of unconscious repose is a violation of the laws of 
health. Nature will not be cheated of its "sweet restorer, 
balmy sleep." 

But sleep is also essential for body rest and for repair of 
the whole system. During those restful hours in bed, the 
circulation is lowered and the heart-beats are fewer. Jut 
as it is less tiring for us to walk than to run, so is it much 
easier for the heart to beat at the rate of fifty or sixty times 
a minute, as it does in sleep, than at seventy or eighty when 
we are moving about. And again, while we are asleep nature 
is busily at work building up and repairing the tissues, and 
restoring the energy we have exhausted during the day. 

The amount of sleep demanded by nature is not the same 
in all persons. More sleep is necessary for the young than 
for the old, and for those whose employment is arduous than 


for the idle. Sleep is the natural rest of all organs. The 
more all the organs are used the more rest they need. The 
organs of the child are particularly busy. They have to 
sustain their proper functions and also assist in the general 
building up of its body, and hence a child needs lots of sleep. 
From six to eight, and in the young, ten hours of sleep out 
of the twenty-four, is not too much. Girls need more sleep 
than boys. It is always an injury to be awakened out of a 
sound sleep, and it is particularly so with the infant. It is 
extremely doubtful if at any time anyone can take too much 

17. The Abuse of Narcotics. Sleeplessness may be 
due to a variety of causes. Whatever the cause, it should 
be attended to and removed as early as possible. A serious 
cause of inability to sleep is over-work of the brain and 
mental worry. In such a case a person should give up all 
brain work at once, and rest long enough to allow the brain 
tissues to recover their tone. In addition to absolute rest, 
change of scene and diversion of the mind are most desirable. 
In no case should opiates or other narcotics be used to 
enforce sleep. To tamper with such drugs is unsafe. They 
are injurious to anybody, bub particularly so to infants and 
young children. All the " soothing syrups," K cordials " and 
" drops " contain opium, and should never be allowed a place 
in the family medicine chest. Sleeping draughts paralyze 
the nerve centres and impair digestion, and worse than all, 
there is always the risk of an over-dose, which usually results 
in death. It is very unwise to use any medicine, especially 
any of the narcotics, such as opium, morphine, chloral, 
bromide, etc., unless under the guidance of a physician. 

18. Effects of Alcohol on the Brain and Nervous 
System. When alcohol is taken, its direct effect is upon 
the brain and the nervous system generally. It is primarily 
through the nervous system that it exerts its evil influence 


on the different organs and tissues of the body. The effects 
of alcohol are conveniently divided into four stages. 

THE FIRST STAGE. The first effect upon th j nervous 
system is to weaken the capillary nerves, and thus allow 
the small blood-vessels in all parts of the body to dilate. 
This produces, as we have already said, a general redness 
of the skin, most noticeable in the hands and face. But 
the same condition of the small blood-vessels exists inwardly 
as is found on the surface of the body. There is increased 
circulation in the tiny blood-vessels throughout the gray 
matter and amongst the white fibres, wriich causes an exalta- 
tion of the mental faculties and a general exhilaration. This 
constitutes the first stage. 

, If its use is now discontinued the poisonous effects pass, off, 
the blood-vessels regain their natural size, and the normal 
condition of the system is restored. But even this temporary 
stimulation is followed by reaction, and the individual feels 
a corresponding depression or prostration, while the aching 
head shows that the brain tissue has been exposed to the 
ravages of an injurious agent. If addicted to the use of 
alcohol for some time, though only to the extent of this 
first stage, serious results may follow. The coats of the 
small blood-vessels become weakened and diseased. The 
increased force of the heart may burst the weakened coat 
and allow the blood to escape into the brain substance, and 
by pressure render the victim unconscious. He has, in fact, 
been seized with an apoplectic fit, and if the escaped blood 
is sufficiently large in amount, death will be the issue, or if 
life be spared he will almost certainly lose much of his 
mental power. 

THE SECOND STAGE. If the individual continue to imbibe 
alcohol, the condition of the first stage gradually changes 
and other symptoms appear. The voluntary muscles become 
affected. They are no longer under the complete control of 


the mind. The effect upon the brain is such that the person 
feels "jolly." But he loses his mental balance and says 
and does things he would not say or do if in his sober senses. 
The heart's action is quickened, and the blood, charged with, 
alcohol, is pumped into the brain with increased force. 

If even now he fortunately ceases to drink, the system 
will struggle back to a natural state. Sturdy efforts will be 
made to carry the poison out of the system. Corresponding 
reaction again sets in. The headache becomes a pain, the 
organs supplied by the cranial nerves are disordered. He 
has a sick stomach, feels generally out -of -sorts, and very 
likely ashamed of his intemperance. The dangers mentioned 
in connection with the first stage attend the second stage in 
a greater degree. 

THE THIRD STAGE. Continuing to drink after the second 
stage has been reached will, in due time, produce intoxication, 
a condition in which the individual ceases to be a rational 
being. The nervous system no longer controls the vital organs 
of the body. They are all filled with blood, and are incapable 
of performing their functions. The mind is obscured, and 
only the animal part of man remains in action. When thus 
intoxicated, the person may be silly and full of ridiculous 
talk, or shout or laugh immoderately. Perhaps he will boast 
about himself in a most untruthful manner, or he may bewail 
imaginary griefs and shed tears of supposed sorrow. On the 
other hand, he may become passionate, cruel and quarrelsome, 
so as to do serious acts or commit crimes altogether contrary 
to his nature when sober. If he stands or attempts to walk 
he has no control over the muscles, and reels or staggers on 
his way, or falls helpless to the ground. 

He has now lost all the elements of manhood, and is 
"beastly drunk," and yet is it not a libel on the beast of 
the field, whose only drink is that provided by the Creator, 
to have a man, thus degraded, compared to him? In this 


condition the whole of the vital organs are in a state of 
disease. The heart's action is feeble and unsteady. The heat 
of the body, which in previous stages was slightly increased, 
at least on the surface, is now reduced below the natural 
temperature. The blood-vessels are over-loaded, from want of 
proper circulation ; a state of lethargy sets in, and he becomes 
entirely unconscious. The poor unfortunate is now "dead 
drunk," and the fourth stage is reached. 

THE FOURTH STAGE. A person "dead drunk " may be said 
to be at the portal of death itself. Everything that charac- 
terizes the man is dead. The senses are all dead. The 
voluntary muscles are the same as dead. Raise the arm, 
and it will fall helpless, like that of a dead person. Place 
your hand on the surface of his body, and it feels as cold 
as death. Excepting for the heavy, labored breathing and 
rattling in the throat, he might be considered actually dead. 
But there remains just enough vitality in the nervous system 
to act upon the respiratory centre and keep the heart in 
action in a feeble, uncertain way. All the other powers of 
life are entirely in abeyance. A person in such a state is 
liable to die at any moment. The dose of alcohol he has 
taken may be sufficient to extinguish what little life remains, 
and thus close the fourth stage. His utter helplessness also 
exposes him to death by accident. Lying out in the bitter 
cold, he readily perishes. If he falls into water, he has no 
power to save himself, and drowning ends the scene. Com- 
pletely dazed, he stumbles about and, perhaps, falls in the 
middle of the road or on a railway track, and there he lies, 
unconscious of the approaching vehicle or train which will 
crush out what life remains. 

Sir Benjamin Richardson, in classifying the effects of alco- 
hol into four . stages, says, when referring to the fourth : 
"The last stage of all, the stage just short of death, the 
fourth stage of the action of alcohol, is clearly not only un- 


natural, but a stage of dreadful disorder and of danger. It 
is clear, surely, to the simplest mind, to the mind of the 
youngest child who can read this book, that a person who is 
lying down, unable to move naturally, unable to hear plainly, 
unable to see correctly, unable to speak distinctly, and unable 
to do anything more than breathe and live it is clear, I 
repeat, to the simplest mind, that a person so placed must 
be in a state of danger and disease as bad as any that could 
be caused by those accidents we all shrink from, accidents 
that wound and stun and kill. 

" If we look at the whole course of the action of alcohol 
from the first stage to the last, we can see no good whatever 
that is supplied by it. Every step that seems harmless is, at 
best, nonsensical ; and every step that seems to be hurtful, is 
hurtful beyond anything that I can explain." 

19. Results Of the Use of Alcohol It will be ob- 
served that the four consecutive stages gradually merge from 
one into the other. There is no distinct line to mark the close 
of the one and the beginning of the next, and there is no 
uniformity amongst those who drink. There are many who 
daily use alcoholic drinks who do not experience 'the several 
stages described, and there are some who never take enough 
to pass beyond the first stage, but in any of these there is 
always the danger of overstepping the limits each has pre- 
scribed for himself. The taste for such drinks, when once 
established, is with difficulty, in many cases, overcome. With 
many others the desire to take more and more is irresistible. 
There are not a few who never take enough to cause intoxica- 
tion, but are more or less under the influence of alcohol every 
day. They have acquired the habit in other words, the 
brain has undergone certain subtle changes which constitute 
a disease. Such persons are afflicted with what is known as 

This disease may be acquired in the way mentioned, or it 


may be inherited. The symptoms are not always the same. 
While some keep the system saturated daily by oft-repeated 
doses, others will only periodically give way to the morbid 
impulse. This insatiable desire for intoxicating liquors at 
stated intervals is called dipsomania, and in many cases it 
is so strong that a man's whole mental power and moral 
nature are subjected to its evil influence. -Recovery from 
this disease is possible, but, sad to say, it is not common. 
The best and surest treatment is of a moral character, aided 
by suitable nerve tonics. 

Alcoholism is a brain disease, and is most common among 
brain-workers, who, being engaged perhaps in ambitious or 
exacting pursuits, and passing through hours of worry, risk 
the temporary relief which a stimulant gives. It is obvious 
that such cases should, if possible, find some occupation in 
which there would not be the same strain on the nervous 
system. A prolonged rest would be better still. A complete 
change of place and surrounding influences should be made. 

It would be easy to point out other forms of disease arising 
from the use of alcohol, but the picture already presented 
should be sufficient to satisfy anyone of the terrible evils it 
brings to those who indulge in its use. 

20. Tobacco. The action of tobacco on the nervous 
system is that of a narcotic poison. Its active principle is 
nicotine, a very strong and rapidly fatal poison. A single 
drop given to a rabbit will produce death in a few minutes. 
The habitual smoker does not as a rule experience any alarm- 
ing effects from the nicotine he absorbs, because his system 
has become used to it. Ask the same smoker how he felt 
after his first smoke. He will tell you, for he remembers it 
well, that he turned sick ; the skin became pale, and a cold, 
clammy perspiration stood out on his forehead; his muscles 
weakened, he trembled all over, and his brain reeled so that 
he could not stand. The depression was alarming; he was 


completely prostrated. It was only after repeated trials, and 
when he had got the system accustomed to it, that he could 
take his smoke with comfort. 

While it is possible to train the system to tolerate the 
poison to such an extent as not to cause any immediate 
prostration, there is hardly a smoker who does not feel at 
times a certain amount of nervous depression. It may be 
a slight trembling of the muscles, causing the hands to be 
unsteady, or it may be a weak, trembling action of the heart, 
with a very rapid pulse, sometimes irregular. This action 
of tobacco on the heart has become so noticeable as to be 
known by the medical profession as " the tobacco heart." 
Then again he may suffer from a form of nervous dyspepsia, 
with nausea and loss of appetite, or a general irritability of 
the nervous system, with headaches, weakened memory, im- 
paired vitality, and loss of flesh. 

It makes little difference in what form tobacco is taken; 
whether in smoking a pipe, cigar or cigarette, taking it in the 
form of snuff, or chewing tobacco, the nicotine is absorbed, 
and it is only a question of the amount in each case. It is 
true some forms are more cleanly and less offensive to our 
friends than others, but in any form it is injurious, and is at 
best a selfish and a filthy habit. 

21. Evil Effects of Tobacco on the Young. Tobacco 
has a more profound effect upon the nerves of a young lad 
than on a grown person, because his nervous system is more 
sensitive and more easily impressed. It is a hundredfold 
more injurious in youth. It weakens the system and tends 
to impair muscular and mental activity. The whole body is 
saturated with a poison, and cannot grow and develop as 
it should. The use of tobacco in any form by young persons 
should be severely condemned. Self-preservation is the first 
law of nature. Let us protect ourselves against this enemy 
by shunning it altogether. 





1. The Five Special Senses. In addition to the com- 
mon supply of nerves of ordinary sensation stationed every- 
where, like sentinels, to guard the body and keep us informed 
of the condition of all its members and organs, there are 
special nerves for acquainting us with what exists outside of 
ourselves. These nerves go to supply certain organs which 
are specially adapted to receive impressions from the outer 
world. There are five special senses taste, smell, sight, 

hearin S and touch. 


2. The Sense of Taste. 

The tongue is the organ of the 
special sense of taste. If we 
examine the tongue carefully, 
we can see on its surface a num- 
ber of small projections. These 
vary in size. At the back they 
are quite large. On the sides 
and at the tip they appear as 
small red points, while on the 
surface generally they are very 
minute and thickly set. These 
little papillae are the taste points, 
and into them can be traced the 

f the nerV6 f 

FIG. 37. Upper surface of the Tongue, 

showing the papillae. taste. In the act of tasting. 


the papillae start up, giving the coat of the tongue a velvety 

In order to taste any substance it must be in solution. 
We cannot taste the sweetness of sugar until some part of 
it melts on the tongue. Anything that will not dissolve is 
tasteless. The different tastes seem to be limited to certain 
parts of the tongue. For instance, salty and bitter sub- 
stances are best tasted at the back part, while the tip takes 
notice oi; sweet substances and the edges best appreciate 
acids. We have natural tastes and we have acquired tastes. 
In his original state, man is guided almost solely by the 
natural sense of taste in selecting his food. Amongst civi- 
lized people there are many acquired tastes. While the 
sense of taste is intended to distinguish between what is 
suitable and what is not suitable to enter the stomach, we 
often violate this sense and take what is not good because we 
have acquired the taste. No one will say, not even the toper, 
that liquor is agreeable to the taste, even from the very start- 
ing of the habit. The hot, fiery liquor is never agreeable, 
but it is forced upon the delicate taste bulbs, and their 
judgment is ignored, until this sense becomes depraved. It is 
possible, also, to train the taste to tolerate, and even to like, 
certain articles of food which at first are not palatable. 

The appearance of the tongue varies in different persons. 
In some it has a smooth, soft, even surface. In others it is 
mapped out in sections by deep lines, which intersect each 
other. In a healthy state of the system it is reddish in color, 
but is readily affected by disorders of the stomach, and covers 
over with a whitish or brownish coating. 

In some animals the surface of the tongue is very rough. 
The papillae are long, and stand out firm and stiff. The cat, 
for instance, has a rough tongue, while some beasts of prey 
can strip the flesh from the bones of their victims with the 
tongue alone. 


3. The Sense of Smell. The outward shape of the 
most conspicuous feature of the face needs no description. 
The frame-work of the nose consists of bone and cartilage. 
Fourteen bones enter into the formation of this organ. Four 
plates of bone are so placed as to form a strong arch, the 
bridge of the nose, capable of resisting considerable outside 
force. Joined to the plates of bone, on either side, are plates 
of cartilage to form the nostrils. The chamber thus formed 




FIG. 38. Sectional view of the Nose. 

is large and is divided by a vertical wall into two halves. 
The floor of the nasal cavity constitutes the roof of the mouth. 
At the back part of the roof of the nose is a very thin plate 
of bone, on which rests a portion of the brain. This bone is 
pierced by numerous little holes, giving it the appearance of 
a sieve. The olfactory nerve, or nerve of smell, lies on this 
bone, and gives off, from its bulb-like end, quantities of little 
filaments, which reach the nasal cavity through these holes 
and spread out on the mucous membrane. 


In each half of the cavity are three small and very spongy 
bones, curved so as to form nearly parallel ridges, and making 
three distinct passages in each nasal cavity. (Fig. 22, p. 65.) 
The filaments of the olfactory nerve are spread out on the 
two upper ridges, but not on the lower. It will be seen from 
this that the sense of smell resides chiefly in the upper part of 
the cavity, and hence the necessity for taking an extra sniff 
when we want to detect a very faint odor. This extra sniff 
sends some of the air through the higher passages. 

The mucous membrane of the nose lines all its passages, 
and is continuous with the lining of the pharynx and wind- 
pipe. This is the most natural and healthy course for the 
air in breathing, because the several passages or warming 
chambers in the nose temper the air as it is drawn in, while 
at the entrance to the nostrils small hairs grow to strain out 
dust and other impurities from the air. 

4. Functions of the Nose. The sense of smell acts in 
conjunction with that of taste. In fact, it precedes taste in 
recognizing the properties of any food about to be taken into 
the stomach. It acts a most important part in guarding 
the portal through which the body receives its nourishment. 
Taste seems to depend a good deal upon smell. If our sense 
of smell is not keen, the taste is also defective. Every 
mother knows this when she holds the nose to administer 
a nauseous draught to her child. Sight also assists taste. 
In fact, without the aid of sight and smell it would often 
be impossible to distinguish substances put into the mouth. 

As stated, the lower portion of the nose takes no part in 
detecting odors. The nerves supplied to this part are not 
from the olfactory, but they do efficient and useful work. 
If the air about to pass inward contains any irritating 
substance, these nerves detect it; sneezing is induced and 
the offending matter is forcibly expelled. The sense of smell 
contributes largely to man's comfort and pleasure. It is ever 


on the alert and ready to warn him of anything disagreeable, 
offensive or injurious. By it he knows the appetizing qualities 
of many foods. By it he enjoys the fragrance of the flower 
and of choice perfume. 

It is not always necessary to bring the substance close to 
the nose to detect its odor. Some smells can be recognized 
at a great distance from their source. Invisible particles 
float in the air and fall upon the sensitive membrane of the 
nose. Some persons have not as acute a sense of smell as 
others. Like all other faculties, it can be educated. Certain 
tribes of Indians, who rely in a great measure upon this 
organ, have an extraordinary sense of smell. The lower 
animals, also, differ in the acuteness of this organ. The dog, 
especially the hound, has a wonderful faculty for smelling. 
He will follow on the trail of a fox for miles guided only by 
the scent. 

5. Other Uses. The cavity of the nose has other 
functions than those mentioned. It is the outlet for the 
secretions from the cavities in the cheek bones. Also, the 
cavity between the plates of bone in the forehead opens into 
the nose and is relieved of its secretions. Likewise, when 
the secretion of water in the eyes is excessive, but not 
sufficient to overflow in the form of tears, it is carried from 
the inner corner of the eye by a small canal into the nose. 

6. The Sense of Sight. The organ of sight is lodged 
in a cavity made up of thin plates of bone joined together. 
At the bottom of this cavity, or socket, as it is called, is a 
small opening through which the optic nerve passes from the 
brain to the eye. The eye-ball, fitly so called, is about an 
inch in diameter. It is composed of the crystalline lens ; a 
jelly-like substance, called the vitreous humor, situated behind 
Jhe lens ; the 'aqueous humor in front, and the iris which acts 
as a curtain, through the centre of which is an opening, 



the pupil. The eye-ball, or globe, rests upon a soft cushion 
of fat. This gives it an easy support and allows it to move 
about with the utmost freedom. 

7. The Coats of the Eye. The eye has three coats. 
The back part of the outer covering, the " white of the eye," 
is called the sclerotic coat. It is a dense, firm membrane, 
and preserves the shape of the eye. In front, the outer coat 

FIG. 39. The Eye: a, crystalline lens; b, the retina; c, the cornea; 
d, the sclerotic; e, the choroid; g, capsule of lens; h, vitreous humor; 
i, iris ; k, pupil ; o, optic nerve. 

is thin and transparent, and is called the cornea. It is the 
window through which light is admitted. 

The second coat, the choroid, lines the outer coat at the 
back. It is a layer of black substance intended to absorb 
the surplus light in order that objects may be clearly seen. 
The third is the retina, a delicate membrane in which are 
distributed the branches of the optic nerve. It is the inner- 
most coat and lies on the choroid. 


8. The Crystalline Lens. As may be seen in a section 
of the eye-ball, the lens is placed in the front part of the 
globe. It is a flattened, double-curved body, with the flatter 
side in front, resembling two watch crystals of different 
curves placed back to back. It consists of layer upon layer 
of a soft jelly-like substance, the inner layers being more 
dense than the outer. It is surrounded by a delicate cover- 
ing, which fixes it to the inside of the eye all round. Both 
the lens and its covering are transparent. 

The lens not only allows the rays of light to pass through, 
but it draws them nearer together, that when they reach the 
retina they may be brought to a point, or focus. In this way 
all the rays of light coming from the different parts of an 
object, or all the objects in the field of our observation when 
we look out, are brought to a focus on different parts of the 
retina, and clearly picture there a miniature of all that is 
before the eye. The optic nerve carries this impression to 
the brain and we see. 

9. The Vitreous Humor. The greater part of the 
interior of the eye-ball is filled with the vitreous humor. 
It is a thin, jelly-like substance, made up mainly of water, 
with a small quantity of albumen and salts. This liquid is 
contained in compartments formed by the walls of a delicate 
membrane. (Fig. 40.) 

10. The Aqueous Humor. The space between the 
cornea and the lens is filled with the aqueous humor. This 
space is partly divided into two compartments by the iris. 
The aqueous humor is more watery than the vitreous. 

11. The Iris. Floating in the aqueous humor is a 
circular curtain or disc, called the iris, from its resembling 
a rainbow in its many colors. It has an opening in its 
centre, the pupil. The iris is made up chiefly of muscular 
fibres, and has a background of coloring matter. The mus- 
cular fibres are arranged in two layers. In one the fibres 


circle round the iris. When these contract they narrow the 
pupil. In the other layer the fibres run from the outer 
border of the iris to the free margin of the pupil. When 
these act they pull back the curtain and dilate the pupil. 
No light can enter the eye excepting through the pupil, so 
that the amount of light admitted is regulated by the iris. 

FIG. 40. Section of Eye-ball. 

If the light is very bright, the pupil becomes small : if it is 
dim, it enlarges. 

This ring-like curtain, which is drawn and withdrawn 
according to the intensity of the light, varies in color in 
different persons. The color of one's eye is the color of the 
iris. Blue, gray, black or brown, with the varying shades 
between, are all due to the color of the iris, except that in 
some persons the pupil is always large and gives the 0&** & 
dark appearance. 


12. The Eye-lids. In order that the eyes may serve the 
body, it is necessary they should be placed in a prominent 
position, consequently their front parts are more or less 
exposed. To afford protection to the eyes, and at the same 
time to shut out the light when too intense, we have the 
eye-lids. They are folds of skin, to which are attached 
delicate muscles for moving them up and down. To give 
firmness to the lids, there is a plate of cartilage in the fold. 
At the edge of the lids the skin turns in to join the lining 
membrane. This membrane is called the conjunctiva, because 
after it has lined the eye-lids for a considerable distance back, 
it folds on to the eye-ball. It covers the surface of the eye 
from this point forward. On the cornea it is extremely 
delicate and transparent. 

The upper eye-lid is larger than the lower, and much more 
movable. The nerve influence to the eye-lids is wonderful. 
Their movements are partly voluntary and partly involuntary. 
We wink continuously while awake. This act, intended to 
keep the eye moist and free from dust, is involuntary. We 
can open and shut the eye by a voluntary act when we will, 
but the flash-like closing of the eye when suddenly threatened 
is involuntary. The extreme sensitiveness of the exposed 
parts of the eye is also a protection. Small particles getting 
into the eye are not allowed to remain there without causing 
a good deal of pain and irritation. 

The upper and lower lids come together at their two 
extremities, forming the outer and inner angles of the eye. 
The space between the two angles varies in different per- 
sons, and has the effect of making one's eyes appear large 
or small. 

The eye-lashes are short, curved hairs, arranged in one, two 
or more rows along the border of the lids. They shade the 
eye and protect it from tiny insects, dust and other particles 
of matter floating in the air. Small oil-glands in the margins 



of the lids keep the edges smooth and prevent them sticking 
to each other. 

The eye-brows are also shades for the eyes, and help to 
protect them from the fierce rays of the sun. These fringes 
of hair incline outwards so as to divert the perspiration from 
the forehead off to the sides and thus prevent it trickling 
down into the eyes. 

13. The Tears. While we are awake, the eye^ball is in 
almost constant motion. With every movement the eye rubs 
against the lids, and in 
order that there may be 
no friction, the surface 
is moistened by a wa- 
tery fluid which when 
it overflows forms tears. 
This fluid is secreted by 
a gland about the size 
of an ordinary bean, 
situated in a hollow in 
the upper and outer part 
of the socket. This tear- 
gland has several small FlG - 41. The Eye-lashes and the Tear Glands: 
T. i B, tear duct; C, C, tear canals; D, tear sac; G, 

ducts, which open at teargland . 
the outer corner of the 

eye beneath the upper eye-lid. The motion of the eye and 
the winking of the lids spread the fluid over the exposed 
surface. The same movements carry the fluid to the inner 
angle of the eye, where it collects in a small hollow between 
the two lids, and is drained off by small canals, one in the 
upper and one in the lower lid. These canals run inward 
to a sac in the corner of the nose, and from this sac the fluid 
descends into the nose. Any local irritation of the eye or 
mental emotion, such as weeping or crying, causes more fluid 
to form than can be carried off by the canals. It overflows 
and runs down the cheeks in tears. 



14. Motion of the Eye-ball. It is the duty of the eye 
to watch objects from every point right or left, up or down. 
Its ability to do this depends upon the action of the muscles 
supplied to it. The rapid glance of the eye here, there and 
everywhere is produced by the contraction of one or more 

Six muscles move the eye, and are attached to the outside 
of the ball. Four of these are straight muscular bands for 

FIG. 42. Muscles of the Eye-ball. 

moving the eye to the right or left, and up or down. They 
all arise from the back part of the socket, near where the 
optic nerve passes in from the brain. These muscles are 
arranged in pairs, and are evenly balanced. The fifth and 
sixth are oblique muscles. The fifth also arises from the 
back part of the socket, and passing forward along the upper 
surface of the eye-ball, its tendon runs through a ring of 
cartilage at the upper and inner border, like a rope through 
a pulley. It then turns and is attached to the eye-ball. 


The sixth is the opponent of the fifth. It is a short muscle 
arising from the socket near the tear sac, and, passing beneath 
the eye-ball, is attached to its outer side. The oblique mus- 
cles rotate the eye as the head is turned, in order that 
objects may be pictured on the same part of the retina. 
When acting with the straight muscles, they move the eye 
in oblique positions. For instance, the eye can be turned 
outward and obliquely upward. 

Through the combined action of these six muscles the 
various movements of the eye are performed. The wonder 
of this exquisite mechanism is greatly increased when it is 
remembered that the two eyes act together and are moved 
in the same direction at the same moment. This harmony 
in the action of the muscles of both eyes is maintained by 
the close connection between the nerves supplying these 
muscles. If from want of proper nerve supply, or from 
weakness or disease, any one of the muscles acts imperfectly, 
the effect is at once noticeable in the nature of a " cast," or 

15. How we See. To have a thorough understanding of 
the eye as an optical instrument, it would be necessary to 
have a clear knowledge of the properties of light. It must 
here suffice to say that the light, in the form of undulating 
rays, passes through the transparent cornea, then through the 
pupil in quantity according to its size, and falling upon the 
lens, converges to a point at the retina. 

The rays of light strike the convex cornea from different 
directions. Those which are straight for its centre pass 
through without any deviation. Of those which come from 
the different angles, some are too near the outer border of the 
cornea and are reflected back, while others pass in, and are 
more or less refracted, or brought nearer together. The 
humors of the eye also bring the rays nearer, but the lens 
is the chief instrument of refraction. By reference to Fig. 


43, the direction of the rays from the several points on their 
way to the retina will be clearly seen. 

There is a delicate little muscle in the interior of the eye- 
ball, attached to the membrane, which encloses and holds the 
lens in place. Its use is important. It finds the focus for 
varying distances, just as a boy pulls his spy-glass in or out 
to get a correct focus according to the distance. Our eyes 
are arranged naturally for seeing distant objects. When we 
look at near objects, this little muscle is brought into action. 
It draws upon the membrane and slackens it, allowing the 
lens to become more rounded. The lens is rapidly adjusted 

FIQ. 43. Diagram showing how the image of an object is formed upon 
the retina. 

in this way for varying distances, and brings the rays of light 
to a focus exactly on the retina. If the lens be too flat, the 
rays will not come to a focus before reaching the retina. If 
it be too rounded, the rays come to a focus in front of the 
retina. In either case the eyesight is defective. In the one 
case the person will be far-sighted, and in the other near- 
sighted. The far-sighted person finds relief in convex glasses, 
the near-sighted person in concave glasses. 

It may not be the fault of the lens that the rays are not 
brought to a focus on the retina. The eye-ball itself may 


be too shallow or too deep, that is, the retina may be too 
near or too far away from the lens. 

16. Hygiene of the Eye. After middle life, and as age 
advances, most persons find their eyesight defective. This is 
commonly due to a loss of power in the little muscle, and the 
lens can no longer adapt itself to varying distances. This 
condition should' not be neglected. The extra effort to see 
distinctly will make matters worse. Suitable glasses should 
be used without delay. As the years advance, stronger ones 
will be necessary. This long-sightedness is not uncommon in 
childhood, and may be seen sometimes in several members 
of the same family, on account of their having the same 
formation of eye. It w~ould be well for teachers, as well as 
parents, to be on the look-out for such cases, and have the 
defect remedied by having the child wear suitable glasses, at 
least during study hours. If not attended to, the evil will 
likely increase and may lead to squinting. Short-sightedness 
is also not uncommon, and is said to be on the increase. 
Prolonged .application to study may bring about this con- 
dition of sight, or constantly holding the book too near the 
eyes. The use of glasses is here also a necessity. Short- 
sighted children at school are apt to lean forward over the 
desk. Note the habit and search for the cause. Fine print 
should never be used in schools, nor the eye taxed for any 
length of time in any way. 

Reading as we lie on a couch or on a bed, the prevailing 
custom of reading on the railway train, reading fine type in 
twilight, or in a dim light, are all habits which should be 
strongly condemned. 

Constitutional diseases, especially scarlet fever, are often 
followed by weakness of sight. After a severe illness the 
eyes should be used with great caution. If reading, or other 
use of the eyes, causes them to ache, or brings on a pain in 
the forehead, it should be discontinued at once. 


17. Color- Blindness. Color-blindness is an inability to 
distinguish colors. It has been ascertained that about four 
persons out of every hundred are thus affected. The colors 
which usually give the most difficulty are red and green, and 
as these are the colors most frequently used in connection 
with the signal lights of railroads and steamboats, it becomes 
a serious matter. 

Color-blindness, in its true sense, is usually an inherited 
defect in sight, but, as a matter of fact, children and others 
often fail to recognize colors because they have not been 
trained to do so. The faculty of distinguishing colors should 
be cultivated from childhood onward. 

18. The Sense Of Hearing. The organ of hearing is 
divided into the outer, middle and inner ear. The outer ear 
comprises that part which stands out prominently on either" 
side of the head, and the small tube or canal leading into the 
bone, called the auditory canal. The peculiarly shaped outer 
part, commonly called "the ear," is so constructed to collect 
sound and transmit it through the auditory canal. It con- 
sists of plates of cartilage covered with skin on both sides. 
The auditory canal is about an inch long, and is lined by a 
continuation of the skin of the ear. Glands are found in 
this lining which secrete ear-wax, to moisten and protect the 
parts. Fine hairs grow at the outer part of the canal, to 
prevent insects and foreign matter from getting into the ear. 

At the bottom of the canal, stretched across it, is a thin 
membrane, the drum. It is this thin membrane that receives 
the sound-waves in the ear. 

19. The Middle Ear. Beyond the drum is a small 
cavity, the middle ear. Hanging across this chamber, from 
the drum inward, is a chain of three very small bones, which, 
from their shape, have been named the hammer, the anvil, 
and the stirrup. These bones, though so small, are complete 



in their construction and articulate with perfectly formed 
joints, one of which is a ball-and-socket joint. At the bottom 
of the cavity is a small tube, leading from the middle ear to 
the upper and back part of the pharynx. This passage keeps 
up a supply of air to the middle ear. By holding the nose 
and keeping the mouth closed, we can force air up this 
It enters the ear with a sudden click. 

FIG. 44. Section through the Right Ear: M, outer ear; G, auditory canal; 
T, the drum; P, middle ear; 0, bones of the ear; E, pharyngeal opening of 
Eustachian tube ; V, vestibule; B, a semicircular canal; S, the cochlea; A, 
auditory nerve. 

20. The Inner Ear. This chamber is somewhat com- 
plex, and is sometimes called the labyrinth. It is situated in 
a solid bone at the base of the skull, hollowed out for the 
purpose, and consists of three portions the vestibule, or 
antechamber, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea, or snail 
shell. The vestibule, situated on the inner side of the drum, 
is not larger than a grain of wheat. Above and behind are 
three bony semicircular canals, which communicate with the 


vestibule at each end. The cochlea, which has been compared 
to a winding-stair or a snail shell, is in front of the vesti- 
bule. In the cochlea are minute fibres, or tendrils, regularly 
arranged from bottom to top, which may be likened to the 
key-board of a piano. The cochlea is filled with fluid, and 
in it floats a delicate sac containing hair-like bristles, some 
fine sand, and two ear-stones. In this wonderfully con- 
structed chamber are the endings of the nerve of hearing, 
spread out on the walls of the cochlea. 

21. How we Hear. When one throws a stone in the 
water, from the point where the stone strikes are seen a 
series of circular wavelets. In like manner, when two sub- 
stances strike together, waves of air are produced. These 
waves, caught by the outer ear, pass through the auditory 
canal and strike upon the drum. The impulse is conveyed 
through the chain of bones into the vestibule, and on to the 
cochlea. This sets the bristles, stones and sand in motion 
in the liquid, more or less, according to the intensity of 
the air wave. The effect of the impulse upon the nerve by 
agitation of the contents of the cochlea is conveyed to the 
brain, and we hear. 

A knowledge of the principles of sound would be necessary 
to understand how the various noises and musical sounds are 
created. The loudness of a sound depends upon the force of 
the air waves. Other variations depend upon the length, 
frequency and regularity of the waves. 

Although sound is mostly carried by the air waves, as 
described, it may reach the cochlea through the bones of the 
head. A watch can be distinctly heard when placed on the 
top of the head, or if we hold it between the teeth the sound 
is carried to the nerves of hearing. Deaf persons by this 
means may be made to hear, unless the nerve itself is de- 
stroyed. The ability to recognize distance in sound, and the 
direction from which it comes, is largely due to experience 
and to education of the sense of hearing. 


Unlike the eyes, each ear is independent of the other, and 
can receive different impressions at the same time. 

In some of the lower animals the outer ear is movable. 
This enables them to turn it in the direction of the sound, 
a valuable means of protection to wild animals who prey 
upon each other. 

22. Hygiene Of the Ear. The essential part of the ear 
being deeply seated and away from outward influence, this 
organ is not subject to injuries and derangements to the same 
extent as the eyes. Still, the ear may become affected, and 
the hearing impaired, or even destroyed. Deafness in one 
ear is by no means uncommon. Temporary deafness may 
result from the closing of the canal by a collection of wax. 
In attempting to remove this with a pin or a hard-pointed 
substance of any kind, there is danger of injury to the 
drum. The safest way is to drop in a few drops of warm 
sweet oil, and afterwards gently syringe out with warm water. 
An insect sometimes gets into the canal, causing a good deal 
of pain. It can generally be drowned with warm water, or 
killed with a few drops of oil, and then washed out. Cold 
water should not be allowed to run into the ear, and a cold 
wind blowing against the ear may affect the sensitive nerve, 
causing "ear-ache." A closing up of the tube leading into 
the throat, from a cold or other inflamed condition of the 
throat, may produce temporary deafness. 

23. The Sense Of Touch. The sense of touch is 
distributed all over the body. The skin everywhere is 
endowed with sensibility. But in certain parts, as the tip 
of the tongue and fingers, the sense of feeling or touch is 
developed to a high degree. Touch is, to a large extent, an 
educated sense. It begins to develop in infancy. There is 
no special nerve of touch, but in the fingers the little papillae 
mentioned in connection with the skin have each a special 
nerve ending, a sort of touch corpuscle. 


The sense of touch informs the mind not only as to the 
nature of an object and its relative position, but as well the 
degree of temperature of the air and of substances. By this 
sense the body feels the comfort of a suitable amount of heat, 
and learns the danger from extreme cold. The common sense 
of the skin acts in conjunction with the muscular sense. It 
also frequently acts in harmony with the other special senses. 

24. Special Senses closely related. The several spe- 
cial senses have a close relationship. They not only often 
act together and in harmony, but one will become a substi- 
tute for another in case one is weakened or destroyed. 
Instances of this are very common. Indeed, wherever one 
of the special senses is lost, another will, by development, 
assume the duties in serving the system as a whole. A blind 
person hears more acutely, and knows more by the sense of 
touch. The law of substitution in the human system is 
constantly in operation, and nowhere so remarkably as in 
connection with the nerves of special sense. 

25. Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco on the Special 
Senses. The nerves of special sense, like those of the body 
generally, are injured by the constant use of alcohol or 
tobacco. We have noticed in its effects upon the nervous 
system, that more alcohol goes to the brain than to any 
other organ. This being the case, the special nerves centred 
in the brain will naturally be disturbed. We find this to 
be true. A little liquor interferes with a person's sight 
and hearing. It is more than probable his taste and smell 
are deficient. An acute observer will notice a man has had 
liquor by the appearance of the eyes, even when it is only a 
glass or two, and in that wild state of the brain, "delirium 
tremens," the special senses are sometimes completely de- 
praved. A man sees on the walls of his chamber all sorts of 
moving creatures, hears strange but fancied noises, and has 
most erratic and imaginative sensations of taste and smelL 


But far short of this pitiable condition, the eye and ear of 
the chronic drunkard may become impaired. Dimness of 
vision and a lack of acuteness in sight are recognized affec- 
tions of the eye, which may be produced both by alcohol and 
tobacco, especially by the latter. One physician reports the 
case of a man who persisted in using a strong " navy plug " 
tobacco until it led to " nearly total blindness." Another 
physician says a refined lady who had learned to smoke " to 
keep her husband company," found her sight rapidly failing 
from its use. 

A general hardening of the walls of the arteries all over 
the body, alluded to in the chapter on Circulation, with 
weakness of their coats from alcoholic liquors, may have its 
outcome in rupture of a blood-vessel anywhere. This may 
happen to a small blood-vessel in the retina, with bleeding 
into the eye, and consequent loss of sight. The same hard- 
ened condition of the coats of the arteries may affect the 
hearing, producing spells of "giddiness," and sometimes a 
"buzzing" in the ears. Deafness from a "dry catarrh" of 
the middle ear, and many other affections of this organ, are 
aggravated by the use of alcohol and tobacco. 

Color-blindness is sometimes produced by alcohol, and is 
more common among heavy drinkers than among total ab- 
stainers. It is, therefore, doubly important for engineers on 
railway trains, and others on whom many lives depend, to 
avoid all intoxicating liquors. 

The two senses, taste and smell, so closely allied and partly 
dependent upon each other for efficiency, are both more or 
less depraved by the smoking and drinking habits. A man 
whose calling requires of him an acute sense of taste and 
smell, a professional "tea-taster," for example, knows he 
cannot use either tobacco or alcohol in any form and retain 
those faculties with any degree of accuracy. 




1. The Protection Of Life. We have endeavored to 
show, in the preceding chapters, how our bodies are built up 
and sustained. We have pointed out the various systems, 
how they are constructed, the useful purposes for which they 
are intended, and the close sympathy which exists between 
them. We have shown that one member of the body cannot 
suffer without all suffering, and that we cannot violate the 
laws of nature, or do an injustice to one part, without being 
called upon to pay the penalty. 

Life is uncertain, and our bodies are not intended at best 
to last much beyond the "threescore years and ten." Yet, 
when we look into the arrangement and construction of the 
many parts of ourselves, we wonder what life is, and how the 
spark is kept constantly aglow. 

We cannot wholly understand the secret of life; but we 
can in part, when we notice the many wise provisions the 
Creator has made for its protection and its continuance from 
day to day. The God who created us and cares for us is a 
Master Workman, and does nothing but what is perfect. He 
has also placed within us the instinct and the desire to pro- 
tect ourselves and to save ourselves, as far as possible, from 
sickness, disease and injury. But accidents are likely to 
happen and sickness may overtake us at any time, hence the 
knowledge gleaned from the pages already studied, if prac- 
tically applied, will become very useful in an emergency, 
when skilled help is not at hand. 

2. Bandages, Splints, etc. In order that we may be of 


service in cases of accident, it is necessary to know what 
appliances are needed, and how to use them. 

Bandages are usually made of unbleached cotton or calico. 
They may* also be made of flannel, muslin, gauze, india 
rubber, etc., according to their intended use. There are 
many kinds of bandages, but the most useful and most 
convenient ones are the roller bandage and the triangular 
bandage. The latter is the one likely to be near at hand, 
for every boy and girl has usually a pocket handkerchief, 
which, when folded diagonally, makes a double triangular 
bandage. As its name implies, it is a three-cornered bandage, 
made by taking a piece of cotton about forty inches square, 
and cutting it diagonally into two halves. We will describe 
this bandage as having two ends and a point, and the longest 
side as the base. Three forms of bandage are made from it : 

THE UNFOLDED BANDAGE, as in a wide sling, where the ends 
are tied behind the neck. The forearm resting in the sling, 
the point is brought around the elbow, and pinned in front. 

THE BROAD BANDAGE, where the point is first brought to 
the base, and the whole folded once. 

THE NARROW BANDAGE, where the point is also brought to 
the base, and the whole folded twice. 

We cannot go fully into the application of this bandage, 
but one or two examples will show there is no part of the 
body that cannot be properly bandaged with it. It is also 
well suited for keeping poultices, etc., in place, and for band- 
aging splints to broken limbs. For the upper or lower limb 
the bandage is folded narrow or broad, and is applied by 
placing its middle over the dressing on the wound, carrying 
it round the limb and back again, and tying at the starting 
point. For the body, it is generally /unfolded. For instance, 
it is applied to the right chest by placing the middle of 
the bandage on that chest, with the point over the right 
shoulder, carrying the two ends round the body, under the 


arms, and knot behind. Next draw the point over the shoul- 
der downwards, and tie it to one of the ends. To apply 
the bandage to the head, fold the lower border lengthways, 
to form a plait like a hem, one and a half inches wide ; place 
the middle of the bandage on the head, so that the plait 
lies crossways on the forehead, the point hanging downwards 
over the back of the neck. Carry the two ends backwards 
over the ears, cross at the back of the head, enclosing the 
point, bring forward, and tie on the forehead. Then stretch 
the point downwards and turn it up over the back of the 
head, and fasten it on the top with a pin. 

The roller bandage is made by tearing the cotton into 
strips of different widths, varying from three-quarters of an 
inch to six inches, and from one and a half to ten yards in 
length, according to the part of the body to be bandaged. 
For the fingers, an inch by a yard and a half ; for the arm, 
two inches by five yards ; for the leg, three inches by six to 
eight yards ; and for the body, four to six inches by ten yards 
are the most suitable sizes. These bandages should always 
be tightly and evenly rolled. The great secret in doing this 
is to start very close and firm. In applying this bandage, 
begin at the extremity of the limb, and roll it evenly round 
and round, overlapping a little each time, so that it is smooth 
and snug. Continue it up until you have reached the wound 
and secured the dressing. 

A splint is an appliance for holding a limb steady. Any- 
thing we can pick up, a shingle, a picket from the fence, an 
umbrella, a bat, a broom handle, would make a good tem- 
porary splint. A picket bandaged to a broken leg by three 
triangular bandages, one at the ankle, one at the knee, and 
one well up the thigh, will hold it firmly enough to be moved 
with safety. If possible, pad the splint with wool, strips of 
cotton, grass, or anything soft and pliable. 

The most convenient dressing for a wound is a piece of 


cotton folded into four or five thicknesses, or a clean handker- 
chief similarly folded, wrung out of cold water, laid smoothly 
on the wound, and secured by a triangular bandage, as 

A poultice makes a softer dressing, but it is not so readily 
at hand, nor so useful, as the water dressing for fresh cuts or 
bruises. It is usually made from ground flax-seed, or what is 
called linseed meal. Put sufficient boiling water into a bowl, 
stir in the meal gradually, as in making porridge, until it is 
the thickness of thin dough. Then spread upon cotton, and 
put on a facing of thin muslin. Jhe chief feature about a 
poultice is its faculty for retaining heat. It must be applied 
hot, and changed as soon as it gets cold. 

A mustard plaster is made by mixing mustard with water 
or vinegar and the white of an egg, and should be of the 
same consistence as a poultice. Spread it on thick gray 
paper, and use a facing of muslin. It should be applied not 
longer than five minutes at a time. 

Fomentations are flannels wrung out of hot water, or hot 
water and turpentine a tablespoonful to every quart of 
water. Lift the flannel from the boiling water, and wring it 
as much as heat will permit; then throw it into a jack 
towel, wring well, and carry to the patient still enclosed in 
the towel. Unfold and apply. Change every few minutes. 

In tying a knot, always make a "reef" or "sailor" knot, 
which is a double loop, with both ends coming out, on one 
side under, on the other over, the loop ; not one end on either 
side of the loop, as in the " granny " knot. 

3. Haemorrhage. Bleeding may be from an artery, a 
vein, or from the capillaries. If an artery is cut, the blood 
spurts out in 1 jets with great force, and is of a bright red 
color. Coming directly from the heart, the loss of blood is 
rapid and the danger is in proportion to the size of the 
artery cut. When a large vein is cut, considerable blood 


may be lost, but as the current is towards the heart it has 
not so much force. It flows evenly and is of a dark purple 
color. If the capillaries only are cut, the blood oozes gently 
from the wound. 

4. Bleeding from an Artery. The arteries are found 
in nearly every part of the body. Wherever it is possible, 
they are situated deep down in the tissues. The larger 
trunks usually occupy the most protected situations, and 
generally run in a very straight course. They are therefore, 
fortunately, not so frequently cut or injured as the veins, 
which run near the surface, and are more tortuous and more 
exposed. When an artery is cut, it calls for prompt action, 
and requires some presence of mind. If the artery is large, 
there is no time to be lost. Let us remember two things to 
be done, even if we forget everything else. Put firm pressure 
directly on the Heeding part, and also on the artery some- 
where above the wound, that is, between it and the heart. 
To apply pressure on the wound, take a pad made of some 
firm substance, such as a flat cork, a smooth, flat stone, a 
roll of paper, a penny, or whatever is within reach, and tie 
it firmly with a handkerchief or a triangular bandage folded 

To apply pressure on the artery above the wound, we must 
know the most suitable places. Gen- 
erally speaking, we can arrest bleeding 
from any part of the arm by pressing 
upon the artery in the arm-pit, and 
from any part of the leg by pressing 
upon the artery in the groin. The 
pressure is best applied by taking the 
narrow folded bandage, or handker- 
FIG. 45. showing how a tri- chief, tying a knot in its centre, plac- 

angular bandage and a stick . .-, . , JIT ji 

may be applied to the arm to ln S thlS knot Over the lme f the 

stop bleeding. artery, and tying it loosely but with 


a firm knot around the limb. Now introduce a piece of stick 
under the bandage and twist it round and round until it is 
tight enough to stop all bleeding. In the upper part of the 
arm, the artery lies along the inner edge of the swell of the 
biceps. From this point the artery 
takes a straight course to the middle 
of the bend of the elbow. Here the 
knot should be placed about the mid- 
dle, and either use the stick, as before, 
or bend and fasten the elbow firmly 
over the knot. In the thigh; the 
artery lies almost in a straight line 
from the inner part of the groin to 
the inner and under side of the knee. 
The twisted bandage is applied high 
up on the thigh, the knot being placed 
011 the line of the artery. For bleed- 
ing below the knee, the twisted band- 
age should be adjusted immediately 
above the knee, or the knee can be 
bent over the knot or pad and fas- 
tened firmly. 

For bleeding from the head or neck, 
naturally we cannot put the twisted 
bandage round the neck. We must 
pad and bandage firmly over the 
wound, if it is on the head, and in 

. t FIG. 46. Showing how a 

the neck press our fingers into the bandage may be used to stop 

wound itself, and directly above and bleeding from an artery in the 

below the wound. 

The twisted bandage is so important that children should 
be frequently practised in its use. 

5. Bleeding from the Veins. First place the person 
in a lying-down position and raise the bleeding part; then 


examine the wound and wash it well with very cold or with 
hot water. If the bleeding is too profuse to be stopped in 
this manner, tie a pad firmly over the wound and free the 
clothing above so that the blood can pass on readily towards 
the body. 

6. Bleeding from the Capillaries. The simple oozing 
of blood from a wound is easily controlled. Cleanse the 
wound well by a good washing with cold water. Lay on it 
the cold water dressing, or the same dressing dipped in alum 
water, and secure it firmly with a triangular bandage. , 

7. Bleeding from the Lungs or Stomach. Keep the 
person quiet and as composed as possible, and put him in a 
reclining position with the shoulders well raised. Apply ice 
or very cold cloths to the chest or pit of the stomach, and 
give him plenty of ice to chew and swallow in little pieces. 

8. Bleeding from the Nose. This is a very common 
occurrence in children and growing people, and is not often 
alarming. Placing the patient in a chair, or allowing him to 
stand, get him to raise both arms high above the head, well 
extended, and keep them there for some time. Pinch the 
nose near the end between the finger and thumb, and press 
backwards or press upward upon the upper lip, or both. 
You will compress a small blood-vessel in either case. Put a 
piece of ice or a cold key to the back of the neck. The 
sudden, cold shock causes the small blood-vessels to shrink. 
The ice or cold water may also be applied to the forehead and 
nose. Do not forget to undo the collar and free the circula- 
tion at the neck. 

Any one of these simple means may suffice to stop the 
bleeding, but if all fail, roll a small piece of cotton wool on a 
long, fine pen-handle, dip it into a bottle of tincture of iron 
and run it into the nose, keeping the pen-handle level and 
allowing it to go straight back for about one and a half to 


two inches. Leave this in for a minute or two, then with- 
draw and roll on a fresh piece, dip and return. 

9. Cuts, Wounds, etc. Having arrested all bleeding 
according to the methods described, the next thing to do is 
to dress the wound. When an artery is cut, the bandages 
must not be disturbed until a physician is called. In all 
other cases, after cleansing the wound well with cold water, 
or, better still, with cold water and borax (four tablespoonfuls 
of the latter to a pint of water), bring the edges together 
closely and evenly. If the wound is a clean-cut one, use 
small strips of sticking-plaster to keep the edges in close 
contact. These strips should be only from a quarter to half 
an inch wide, and from two to four inches long. In apply- 
ing them, leave intervals between. Next lay on the water 
dressing, using the borax water in preference to plain water. 
Fasten this in place with a triangular bandage. If there is 
much pain or inflammation, keep the dressing constantly wet 
with the cold borax water. When a wound is badly torn or 
bruised, do not use the sticking-plaster, but, having arranged 
the edges as evenly as possible, apply the dressing as above. 
Lastly, place the patient in an easy position, and do not 
allow any straining on the wounded part. 

10. Bites of Animals. Tie a thick cord tightly around 
the limb on the side nearest the heart. Suck the wound 
well, spitting out the poison. Encourage bleeding by bath- 
ing the wound freely with luke-warm water. If positive the 
bite is from a mad dog, or other rabid animal, burn out the 
poison at once with pure carbolic acid, or a red-hot iron. 

11. Burns and Scalds. A burn is caused by dry heat, 
and produces pain, with redness of the skin, blistering, and, 
if intense, destruction of the deeper tissues. A scald is 
caused by hot or boiling liquids falling on the skin; the 
epidermis is raised, large blisters form, and the true skin is 
reddened and inflamed. The chief objects in the treatment 


are to ease the pain and to prevent unsightly scars. The 
best dressings are Carron oil (a mixture of equal parts of 
linseed oil and lime water), castor oil and olive oil. Apply 
the oil freely, wrap the part up in cotton wool, and bandage 
loosely. As healing goes on, keep the parts in their natural 
position, so that when the scars form and contract, as they 
have a tendency to do, they cannot draw and bind the limb 
in a false position. 

1 2. Clothes on Fire. Prompt action is necessary when a 
child's clothes accidentally catch fire. In a very few minutes 
it will be enveloped in flames, and so severely burnt as t# 
render recovery doubtful or impossible. Place the child flat 
On the ground at once. Flames naturally ascend, and will 
rapidly encircle the body in the upright position, but when 
lying down they ascend into the air ; smother the flames with 
your coat, a shawl, rug, table-cloth, or anything at hand. If 
on fire yourself, do not run for help, but get flat down, pull 
something over you and smother out the flames, or roll round 
and round on the floor. Crawl to the bell and ring it, or to 
the door, and call for help. Girls and women are more apt 
to get seriously burnt in this way than boys or men, on 
account of their mode of dress. 

13. Frost-bite. The nose, ears, fingers and toes are occa- 
sionally frost-bitten. Rub the parts affected with snow, or 
other cold application, in a room without a fire. If a person 
is severely frost-bitten, give hot drinks, such as beef tea or 
hot ginger tea, and in the after treatment deal with the 
wound as you would with a burn. Poultices may be needed 
later on, to remove the parts destroyed by the frost. 

14. Broken Bones. A simple break is one in which the 
bone only is divided. A compound break is one where the 
bone pierces the skin, making an external wound. The usual 
symptoms of a broken bone are : The limb is helpless and 
painful; it is very likely altered in shape, and there is an 



unusual looseness at the seat of fracture. Any movement 
causes a scraping together of the broken ends of the bone, 
which can be felt, and sometimes heard. Often the limb is 
shortened, and there is an un- 
evenness along the surface at 
the broken place. 

Do not move the person until 
you have made the limb safe 
from further harm by putting 
on splints. By careless hand- 
ling, or by attempting to use 
the limb, we may sometimes 
convert a simple break into a 
compound one, by forcing the 
fractured bone through the skin. 

FIG. 47. Showing how a tempo- 
rary splint may be put on a broken 

FIG. 48. Showing how a temporary 
splint and a sling may be put on a 
broken arm. 

It then becomes a much more formidable injury. Seizing the 
hand or foot, as the case may be, pull steadily, but firmly and 
in a straight line, until you bring the limb into as natural 
a position as possible, and secure with splints and bandages. 
If it is the arm, it should then be put in a sling ; but if the 


leg, it is always safer to tie both legs together, securing them 
at the knee and ankle and carry the patient home on a door, 
shutter, or other improvised stretcher. 

15. Dislocations. When a bone is thrown out of the 
joint, there is always a good deal of pain. The part will have 
a deformed look, and the limb will be helpless and fixed. 

Apply cold-water cloths, to relieve the pain and prevent 
swelling, until the doctor comes. If the person must be 
moved, carry him on a stretcher. 

16. Sprains. A sprain is a wrench of the joint, tearing 
some of the ligaments and tendons which bind it. The joints 
least liable to dislocation are most liable to sprain. Those 
most commonly sprained are the ankle, wrist and knee. 

Apply ice-cold water at once and continuously, for two or 
three days, keeping the joint well elevated. If not attended 
to in this way at once, and considerable swelling has occurred, 
then hot fomentations are better than the cold. It is also a 
good plan to put on a roller bandage, evenly and firmly, and 
keep it well soaked with water. 

17. Insensible Conditions. Insensibility is brought 
about by some interference with the proper action of the 
heart, or by some disturbance to the natural condition of the 
brain. If from any cause the heart's action becomes suddenly 
weak, and does not send a proper supply of blood to the 
brain, the patient is pale, and may become gradually uncon- 
scious. On the other hand, too much blood to the brain 
causes a delirium, which may pass into insensibility. An 
injury to the brain may cause insensibility; so also poison- 
ing. Opium may put the brain to sleep. Alcohol may deaden 
the brain centres. Anything which stops the breathing also 
checks the heart, and soon produces insensibility. 

The most common forms of insensibility met with are : fits, 
concussion and compression of the brain, sun-stroke, intoxica- 
tion, drowping, suffocation by gas, strangling, poisoning, etc. 


18. General Hints. Note the surroundings and glance 
around for probable cause. Place the person on his back, 
with a pillow or folded coat under his head. Straighten him 
out, and examine carefully. Undo his clothes at the neck, 
chest and waist. Feel the pulse at the wrist, and listen to 
his breathing. Examine his pockets for a bottle of spirits or 
poison. Smell his breath, to detect liquor. Notice the face, 
whether pale, as in fainting, or flushed, as in intoxication. 
Do not attempt to make an insensible person swallow any- 
thing. If the person is affected with violent spasms or 
convulsions, do not hold him too firmly, but restrain him ' 
sufficiently to prevent self -injury, and place something hard 
between his teeth, to prevent the tongue from being bitten. 

19. Fits. Ordinary fainting jits are produced by being 
in a too close, warm room, by mental shock, by loss of blood, 
or by a weak heart. Lay the patient down, with the head 
very low, and bathe the face and head with cold water. Give 
plenty of fresh air, and, if at hand, use smelling salts. 

Apoplexy is caused by the breaking of an artery in the 
head, with bleeding into the brain. Although placed in the 
lying position, the head and shoulders should be kept well up, 
to keep the blood away from the brain as much as possible. 
Use cold' water and ice to the head, and heat to the arms and 
legs. Hot stove-lids, hot bricks, hot-water bottles, or mus- 
tard plasters can all be used to draw the blood into the legs 
and arms. 

Epilepsy is a convulsive fit, which some people are subject 
to at intervals. When the spasms are on, treat as already 
directed, and when consciousness returns give some nourish- 
ment, such as beef tea, and advise rest and sleep. 

20.. Concussion of the Brain. A shaking up of the 
brain by a fall or blow on the head is called concussion. If 
the blow is severe enough to break in both tables of the skull 
and cause pressure on the brain, it is called compression, and 


is more serious than concussion. In either case the patient 
should be immediately taken into a quiet, dark room, and 
put to bed, with a large pillow under his head. Apply 
warm blankets to the body and hot applications to his hands 
and feet. 

21. Sun-Stroke, or Heat-stroke. When over-heated, 
we feel faint and exhausted. We are overcome with the 
excessive heat, but it is not sun-stroke. Lying down in a 
cool, shady place, and sponging the face and hands with cold 
water, will quickly relieve. A drink of hot tea or coffee or 
beef tea will stimulate the nagging heart. A sun-stroke is 
more serious, and insensibility soon follows. The conditions 
are: too much blood in the head and brain, the face red, 
the head hot, the breathing slow and labored, and the pulse 
full, but weak. Perhaps the first symptom the patient will 
notice is intense pain at the back of the head. It is not 
necessary to be exposed to the sun's rays to get sun-stroke. 
Intense heat of any kind may produce it. Remove the 
patient to a cool room, and place him on a couch with his 
head high. Apply ice-cold cloths, or, better still, the ice-bag, 
to the head, back of the neck and spine, and warmth to the 
legs and feet. 

22. Intoxication. Excess in drinking brings about in- 
toxication. In this condition the individual is usually not 
perfectly insensible, and can generally be roused by pinching 
or shaking. This is a good time to give an emetic of salt or 
mustard, a tablespoonful of either to a tumbler of water. 
Give him plenty of it. Many, however, are beyond this 
stage. They are "dead drunk," and require the utmost care. 
In dealing with such a case, get him to bed in a comfortable 
room. Raise his head a little, and apply cloths frequently 
wrung out in cold water. Roll him in warm blankets, and 
put hot-water bottles to his feet and hands. When he rouses, 
give him a little beef tea or hot milk. 


23. Drowning. The great object is to restore the breath- 
ing. Lose no time. The moment the body has been removed 
from the water make all efforts to save life. Do not lose 
valuable time in order to procure shelter, warmth, etc. In- 
stantly remove all tight clothing from the neck, chest and 

FIG. 49. First Position : to remove water and mucus from the 
throat and windpipe. 

Turn the patient on his face, and getting astride him at 
the hips (Fig. 49) with your face towards his head, lock your 
hands under his body and raise him as high as you can with- 
out lifting the forehead off the ground. Give the body two 
or three smart jerks to remove all water, slime or mucus from 
the mouth, throat and windpipe. 

Next place the patient on his back in a lying position, 
with a pillow or coat rolled up underneath the shoulder- 
blades, and with the head hanging back slightly. Sweep the 
forefinger, covered with a handkerchief or towel, round the 
inside of the mouth, to free it from sand, mud, froth or 
mucus. If you have anyone to help, get the assistant to 
draw forward the tongue. It generally tends to fall back in 
the throat and close the air-passage. The assistant can hold 



the tongue better by using a dry handkerchief or towel. If 
you have no help, draw forward the tongue and secure it by 
a string, a rubber band or a strip of handkerchief fastened 
round the lower jaw. 

24. Artificial Respiration. These preliminary efforts 
should be the work of but a few moments. Now you are 
ready for the main part of the treatment to keep up arti- 
ficial respiration until the natural breathing comes. 

FIG. 50. Second Position: for the purpose of drawing air into the lungs. 

Stand or partly kneel at his head, and grasping the arms 
near the elbows, draw them up over the head until they 
meet, extending them upward with a good pull (Fig. 50), and 
hold them there for a couple of seconds. This increases the 
cavity of the chest, expands the lungs, and the air is drawn 
in to fill the space. 

Now draw down the arms and press them firmly against 
the sides of the chest. (Fig. 51.) This tends to force air out 
of the lungs, and thus you complete the act of respiration by 
artificial means. 

Repeat this process steadily at the rate of about fifteen 
times in a minute until he begins to breathe. Do not get 



discouraged too quickly, even if there seems to be no life in 
the body. Artificial respiration should, if necessary, be kept 
up for at least two hours. Life has been restored even after 
four hours. 

As soon as the patient begins to breathe, wrap him in 
dry, warm blankets, and rub the limbs under the blankets 
vigorously towards the heart, so as to assist the circulation 
in the superficial veins. Put heated flannels, hot-water 
bottles, or hot bricks to the feet, legs, armpits and pit of the 

FIG. 51. Third Position : for the purpose of expelling air from the lungs. 

stomach. When able to swallow, give him small quantities 
of hot milk, beef tea or coffee. Keep the patient in bed and 
let him sleep if possible. If his breathing is not free and 
easy, put a mustard plaster to the chest for a few minutes, 
and repeat again in an hour if necessary. 

25. Suffocation by Gas, Smoke, etc. The chief dan- 
gers from suffocation by noxious gases come from burning 
coal in badly constructed furnaces, stoves or ranges, from 
" blowing out " gas in bed-rooms, instead of turning it out, 
or from foul air in old wells or in mines. 

Remove the patient at once to fresh air. Undo all cloth- 
ing about the neck, bare the chest and dash on cold water, 



If breathing is not immediately restored by these efforts, 
lose no time but set to work to perform artificial respiration, 
as in drowning, using the same precautions, the same energy, 
and keep it up as faithfully. 

26. Foreign Bodies in the Eye, Ear, etc Although 
the organs of special sense are well protected, yet foreign 
substances will, by accident or by the wilfulness of children, 
sometimes get lodged in them and cause trouble and annoy- 
ance. Cinders and particles of dust often get into the eye, 
and cause a good deal of pain. Do not irritate and inflame 
the eye by rubbing it. Open the eye-lids and perhaps the 
overflow of tears will wash out the offending substance, or 
draw down the upper lid well over the under one, and the 
lashes may remove it, If it can be seen, get a friend to use 
a fine, clean handkerchief to dislodge it. Lime in the eye 
may cause serious mischief, unless attended to at once. Mop 
the eye with a camel's hair brush or fine feather, dipped in 
a solution of vinegar and water, one tablespoonf ul to a small 
teacupful of water. 

Small insects may crawl hito the ear and cause great pain. 
Put in a few drops of warm sweet oil, and then syringe out 
the ear with warm water. A pea or bean getting into the 
ear will soon swell out from the warmth and moisture, and is 
very difficult to remove. Do not wait for it to swell, but go 
to a physician and have it taken out. 

A child may shove a pea, bean, or button, etc., up the 
nose until it is beyond reach. If the child can be got to 
blow the nose, he may dislodge it; or it may be removed 
by holding, his mouth closed, and blowing up the other nostril 
with a tube. The air passes around and may force out the 

Bits of food, a thimble, a copper, or other substance, may 
lodge in the throat and endanger the life of a child from 
choking. A quick, smart slap between the shoulders may 


force it out, or turn the child on his head and give him one 
or two vigorous shakes. If there is still no relief, try to 
grasp the object with your finger and thumb, or if too far 
down for this, run your finger down and shove it on kito the 
gullet, so as to free the windpipe. 

27. Poisons. Whenever it is necessary to have a poison- 
ous drug about the house, it should be carefully labelled 
" POISON," and put in a safe place. There should be only 
one place for all such articles, and that place should be a 
locked cupboard or chest. Do not keep any medicine or drug 
that has lost its label. Throw it out at once, instead of 
taking a dose to find out what it is. "An ounce of preven- 
tion is worth a pound of cure." 

If you believe a poison has been swallowed, but do not 
know what it is, the best you can do is to encourage vonJting 
and get the stomach to reject all it can. The best and most 
convenient emetics are large draughts of warm water and 
mustard or salt. 

If you now discover what poisonous substance has been 
swallowed, you must try and recall to your mind the best 
remedy you can use or have at hand for counteracting it. 
Charge your memory with the antidotes or drugs given to 
counteract the effects of the poisons most commonly met 
with. It is a wise precaution to have the antidote for each 
poison kept in the house, and it is safer still, where prac- 
ticable, to label and place each antidote with the poison it 
will counteract. 

Mineral acids and alkalies neutralize each other, and there- 
fore one is an antidote for the other. 

If a strong mineral acid, such as oil of vitriol, aqua fortis, 
or spirits of salt, be swallowed, give large drinks of soda> 
magnesia or lime-water, chalk, soap-suds or plaster from the 
wall. When hartshorn, caustic soda, lime or strong lye are 
taken, give vinegar and water or lemonade. Carbolic acid 


has become somewhat common in households, and is a dan- 
gerous poison. Alkalies do not neutralize this acid. The 
best you can do is to give large quantities of sweet oil and 

Rat poisons contain either phosphorus, mercury, arsenic or 
strychnia. For any of these, first give an emetic. Phos- 
phorus is also in common use in the manufacture of matches. 
It is best counteracted by large draughts of warm water and 
magnesia. No oils. For arsenic, give new milk, raw eggs, 
linseed tea, and a full dose of castor oil. For mercury, give 
the same antidotes as in arsenic. In a case of strychnia 
poisoning, after encouraging vomiting by an emetic or by 
tickling the throat with a feather, give animal charcoal mixed 
with water ; use cold applications to the body, and, if neces- 
sary, resort to artificial respiration. 

Narcotics, such as opium, morphine, laudanum, paregoric, 
etc., in large doses, produce a deep sleep or stupor. After 
using a brisk emetic, keep the patient roused by walking 1 
him about, slapping the face and body with cold, wet towels, 
and give strong coffee. 

28. Alcohol in First Aids. It is, unfortunately, too 
common a practice when a person -is taken suddenly ill or 
meets with an accident, to give brandy or whiskey. Not 
knowing what to do, we are apt to do the wrong thing. In 
all the different emergencies and ailments we have been deal- 
ing with in this chapter, not only is alcohol unnecessary, 
but in many cases it would be positively harmful. When 
the patient can swallow at all, a drink of hot beef tea, hot 
milk, or hot ginger tea will answer every purpose. 

29. Alcohol and Tobacco Irritant Narcotics. The 
irritant poisons, such as mineral acids, arsenic, etc., can be 
and are used as medicines in properly regulated doses. With 
the same care, narcotics are sometimes given to relieve pain 
or soothe the wearied brain to sleep. In like manner, the 


irritant narcotics, such as brandy and all spirituous liquors, 
tobacco and nicotine, may be taken in small doses, without 
producing any marked signs of poisoning ; but just as surely 
as an overdose of any of the other poisons will produce 
serious results, so sure is an overdose of alcohol or nicotine 
to endanger life or even prove fatal. Many a child, and 
many older persons, for that matter, have lost their lives by 
taking a large dose of alcohol, either by mistake, or by having 
it forced upon them, or in a wager. 

Intoxication is in reality a poisoned condition of the sys- 
tem. The name itself implies this. Alcohol, when taken 
almost pure and in sufficient quantity, may produce death in 
a few minutes or in a few hours; and even when taken in 
small quantities, while it does not produce symptoms of 
poisoning, it tends to shorten life, and is often the primary 
cause of many of the every-day examples of ill-health, sick- 
ness and squalor, since it weakens the constitution, under- 
mines morality, and is the great fountain of pauperism, 
thereby rendering thousands of homes unhappy. 

If alcohol and tobacco were irritants only, they would be 
as little used as any of the irritant poisons, but they are 
narcotics as well, and while they soothe, they also irritate 
and destroy; while they stimulate, they also depress; while 
they exhilarate, they also weaken; .while they charm the 
senses for a time, they fascinate until they conquer; while 
they drown sorrow, the respite is brief, for it soon returns 
with greater weight. Instead of elevating, they debase; 
instead of strengthening the moral system, they undermine 
it ; instead of improving the mental and intellectual facul- 
ties, they numb the very nerve centres; and instead of 
nourishing and invigorating the system, they interfere with 
its various functions, and render it more susceptible to injury 
and decay. 



1. Preventable Diseases. During recent- years much 
progress has been made along the lines of acquiring more 
accurate knowledge of the causes of the various diseases, their 
modes of spreading, and of more effective measures for pre- 
venting and restricting them. It is a nobler aim for the 
physician to prevent disease than to cure it. The name of 
Sir W. Jenner will ever be known, not so much because he 
was a celebrated physician, but because by the introduction 
of vaccination he established a method of preventing the 
virulence of small-pox. Scurvy, which a few years ago was a 
very common disease on board ships long out at sea without 
vegetables, or amongst soldiers in war time where the diet 
was not sufficiently varied, is now a rare disease, owing to the 
discovery of the cause, and the use of lime-juice and lemon- 
juice when fresh vegetables cannot be obtained. Leprosy 
was a well-known disease in ancient days, and up to a few 
hundred years ago it. was common in Great Britain. By a 
continued and careful isolation of cases it has now become a 
rare disease. The much dreaded cholera has been pretty 
effectually held in check by the watchfulness of the Public 
Health Officers at the various seaports. And of other pre- 
ventable diseases, such as typhoid fever, measles, scarlet fever, 
diphtheria, erysipelas, etc., better means of arresting local 
epidemics have been used recently than in former years. 

But while much has already been done in the way of pre- 
venting disease, more remains to be done. The seeds of 
disease have been widely sown in the human race by inatten- 


tion to the laws of health, and will continue to germinate 
and grow if not arrested by the strictest compliance with 
those laws, not only of individuals, but of communities as 
well. In view of the fact that by the observance of sanitary 
laws disease may be prevented, it is obvious that education 
on this subject should be widely diffused. It should begin 
in childhood with the parent, by precept and example. It 
should be continued in the school-room, from the lowest 
grades upward, and the wise and prudent man will be a 
student of hygiene all his life. 

2. Infectious and Contagious Diseases. The terms 

infectious and contagious have a separate and distinct mean- 
ing, although they are commonly used synonymously. The 
distinction is important in so far as each term indicates 
the means whereby the poison which invades the system is 

The poison of an infectious disease is developed external to 
the human body, and is introduced to the system irrespective 
of a pre-existing case. Typhoid fever and cholera are types 
of this class. In a contagious disease the germs of the poison 
are received directly or indirectly from a person having the 
disease. The germs, having been received into the system, 
undergo a process of development and multiplication. There 
is always a period, longer or shorter, between catching the 
disease and its actual appearance. It is a period of incuba- 
tion or hatching. Familiar types of this class are scarlet 
fever, measles and small-pox. 

Some diseases are more distinctly contagious than others, 
as scarlet fever and small-pox; some, as diphtheria, seem to 
be both infectious and contagious, while cholera is ^believed 
by some to be contagious as well as infectious. 

The poison of infection, developed external to the body, 
requires suitable soil in which the germs may take root and 
grow. This soil consists of dead matter which has formed a 


part of a living being or a vegetable growth. It is not 
merely dead matter, it is matter undergoing decomposition; 
not alone decomposing, but putrefying. It does not require 
much of this putrefying matter to form a breeding-ground for 
the disease germs, and, unfortunately, such breeding-grounds 
abound on every hand. They are the outcome of every-day 
civilized life. They are found in the waste material which 
comes from every dwelling-house, from many factories, stables, 
storehouses, butcher stalls, etc. They exist in the form of 
garbage thrown from the kitchen or lying in the cellar, in 
the slops of the kitchen, in the dust on the floor, or lodged on 
the furniture. In a word, a breeding spot for disease will be 
found in every hole and corner of an untidy house on the 
walls, in the clothing, everywhere. 

3. Means of Invading the Human System. The 
manner in which these disease-producing germs find their way 
into the body is varied. They are often, when floating in 
the air as dust, inhaled with the breath. They may be mixed 
with the food or drink, and swallowed. When these germs 
gain admission to the system, they enter into a contest with 
the elements of the body. Having found a soil suitable for 
their development, they, in taking root, take nourishment from 
the cellular structures of that particular part. They encroach 
upon the living cells, and a struggle for life ensues between 
the cells of the part and the invading cells. Sometimes the 
seat of conflict is in one part of the body, sometimes in 
another. In typhoid fever the battle-ground is in one portion 
of the intestine, in cholera it is in another portion. In diph- 
theria it is in the mucous membrane of the throat. It is 
here also in whooping-cough. In erysipelas it is in any part 
of the surface where there is a wound or broken integument. 

In this struggle for life the more numerous and more 
powerful the invading force, the more decided the victory. 
But sometimes the invaders fail to conquer. Not everyone 


Exposed to infection or contagion takes the particular disease, 
not because the germs do not enter the system, but because 
they were too weak, or because the powers of life enable^ the 
cells attacked to successfully resist the enemy, to destroy him 
and cast him out. Polluted germs sometimes enter the body, 
and instead of attacking a particular part, contaminate the 
whole system. This is seen in intermittent fever and low 
fevers, caused by living in malarial districts. 

The lesson these facts afford is easily learned. The force of 
the maxim, "Prevention is better than cure," is to be applied 
to every-day life. High authority has declared that clean- 
liness is next to godliness. But the matter of cleanliness 
must be applied, not only to the person, but to his surround- 
ings as well. If this rule be observed, no soil for impure 
germs to grow in will exist about the dwelling, the office, 
the work-shop, or especially the kitchen. 

The most efficient means of dealing with all refuse material 
is always at hand. All refuse organic matter that can be 
burned, should be thus destroyed. Filth in fluid form may 
be burned by mixing sawdust with it. If not burned, the 
material should be far removed from every p]ac*e of habitation 
or be properly disinfected. Pure air and sunlight are valuable 
disinfectants, and should be let into every hole and corner of 
the house and premises. Beside air and sunlight, nature has 
provided another disinfectant in common earth, which will 
absorb fluids, and by chemical action convert offensive mate- 
rial into soil. 

4. Antiseptics and Disinfectants. An antiseptic is an 

agent which restrains or absolutely prevents decomposition ; 
a disinfectant oxidizes the dead matter as it decomposes, but 
the best disinfectants are those that destroy the germs of 
disease. The use of an antiseptic, as common salt in curing 
meat, prevents the necessity of using disinfectants, and the 
timely use of a disinfectant destroys the soil in which germs 


would develop. The butcher, finding his meat a little tainted, 
can restore it by the timely use of a disinfectant, and hence 
he washes it with Condy's fluid, or, better still, a solution of 
the "acid from willow bark. One of the best and cheapest 
antiseptics is boiling water. It has no equal in the univer- 
sality of its use and in its cleansing and wholesome properties. 
In the kitchen, in the scullery, in the laundry, in the 
dairy, it is the perfect antiseptic. The housewife knows its 
antiseptic properties when she scalds the milk cans before 
" setting " the milk, in order to keep it pure and sweet. 

Many of the best disinfectant drugs are powerful poisons, 
and, therefore, cannot be recommended for general use. 
Strong-smelling drugs are not necessarily good disinfectants. 
They may be good deodorizers, but cannot be relied upon for 
killing germs. Carbolic acid, for instance, will only disinfect 
where it touches, and although much vaunted and much used, 
is not a good general disinfectant. The following is a better 
general disinfectant, and is one which cannot be too strongly 
recommended, not only for its effectiveness, but because it 
is cheap, free from smell, practically non-poisonous in the 
strength it is used, and will not stain or injure linen, clothes, 
etc. Dissolve, half a drachm (nearly half a small teaspoonful) 
of nitrate of lead in a pint of boiling water. Then dissolve 
two drachms (two teaspooiifuls) of common salt in eight 
quarts of water. Pour the two mixtures together. After 
the sediment has settled, the liquid is a saturated solution of 
chloride of lead. 

A cloth dipped in it and hung up in a room will purify a 
fetid atmosphere. It may be used to be poured down a sink, 
drain, or other foul opening. 

5. The Sick Room. The proper management of a case 
of contagious disease, to prevent it from spreading, should be 
understood by everyone. From this case the germs may find 
their way to other members of the family. They may pass 


directly from the one affected to another by inhaling the 
breath or the exhalations from the body, or they may be 
carried by a third person from the first to the second, or by 
means of a book or other inanimate object. Again, the germs 
may lie dormant for an indefinite period, perhaps in clothing 
or on the walls of a room, like wheat in a granary stored 
away, ready to grow when sown on a suitable soil. Instances 
are not uncommon where a contagious disease appeared, when 
it was impossible to ascertain its source. It is known that 
these diseases do not arise spontaneously. As well expect to 
have a crop of corn without planting corn, as to have scarlet 
fever, for instance, without having had the germs of that 
disease planted in the system. Doubtless, in the instances 
referred to the germs had been lying undisturbed upon some 
object. or in some article of clothing for a time past recollec- 
tion ; or, as has often Happened, a family has moved into a 
dwelling where a case had existed, and proper disinfection 
had not been made. 

Certain contagious diseases are only contracted once in 
life, as measles and scarlet fever, with some few exceptions. 
Sometimes a person may be exposed to a contagious disease 
without catching it, and when again exposed is not so fortu- 
nate. This is due either to the existence of a more powerful 
poison at the last exposure, or to what is called a predisposition 
on the part of the individual. He may be at this time in less 
robust health, and the vital powers are unable to cope with 
the germs successfully. It is to be remembered that no one 
in poor health should expose himself as attendant upon the 
patient. The more contagious the disease, as in scarlet fever- 
or small-pox, the greater the care to be observed. While 
the' welfare of the patient is duly attended to, the welfare of 
others should not be neglected. There need be no conflict 
between the two necessities. 

The first thing to be done when a case of contagious disease 


becomes known, is to isolate the person. It is preferable to 
have the sick room at the top of the house. The germ-tainted 
air is more likely to ascend than descend, and in ventilating, 
the foul air of the chamber will escape above the heads of the 
occupants, and be soon lost in the atmosphere. 

The sick room should be large, bright and airy, but should 
contain only such articles of furniture as are absolutely re- 
quired for the comfort of the patient and nurse. The room 
should be stripped of carpets, curtains, pictures and table 
covers, unless they are subsequently to be burned. Also books, 
papers, ornaments, and in fact everything that can be easily 
removed. The less there is in the room the less surface there 
is on which the disease germs can collect. There should be 
no superfluous bedclothes, and the nurse must be satisfied 
with a cushionless chair. She must not go about the house or 
among the family. She must take her meals by herself, and 
sleep either in the sick room or in a room similarly prepared, 
and used only by herself. Only the nurse and doctor should 
enter the room, and nothing should be taken back and forth 
to and from the sick room. All the excretions of the body 
must be disinfected at once. In a case of diphtheria, the 
discharges from the throat should be collected on pieces of old 
cotton, and promptly put in the fire. Any food or drink left 
by the patient should be either burned or disinfected. 

Besides avoiding the sick room, the other members of the 
family should, as far as possible, withdraw for the time from 
society generally, and especially should the attendance of any 
of the children at school be discontinued. 

Proper ventilation is necessary night and day. The old 
idea that night air is dangerous has mainly lost its hold upon 
the intelligent mind. But admitting that night air is objec- 
tionable, it is far better for the patient than the close, tainted 
air of the room. When the room remains altogether closed 
for a time and then opened, the rush of foul air outward 


cause a current which might be a source of danger to the 
patient. The form of ventilation must be directed by the 
doctor, and his instructions in this and all other respects 
should be implicitly followed. 

When the patient has recovered, he should, after a bath, be 
put in clean clothing brought into the bath room, and should 
not re-enter the sick chamber. The room and contents 
must be thoroughly disinfected. Throw the windows widely 
open. Soiled articles, with the wood- work of the room, should 
be thoroughly washed and scrubbed with hot water and 
soap, and then with the solution of chloride of lead. Articles 
of little value should be burned, also articles that will not 
stand washing. Fabrics must be subjected to continued boil- 
ing, and then dipped in disinfecting fluid. The wall paper 
had better be removed and burned. All these precautions 
must be observed, especially in the more contagious diseases. 
When it is a prolonged case of sickness which is not con- 
tagious, the room need not be so thoroughly dismantled, and 
more attention will be necessary in making the room cheerful 
and attractive. 

6. Stimulants in the Sick Room. The free use of 

alcoholic stimulants in the sick room is now strongly depre- 
cated by those- who have carefully watched their effects. 
Heart tonics and diffusable stimulants, such as ammonia, etc., 
are more serviceable than alcohol in the majority of cases. 
They have not the depressing after-effects, nor do they clog 
the system and interfere with nature's struggles towards the 
restoration of health. 

In the course of acute fevers, and in epidemics of virulent 
diseases, few physicians now resort to the routine treatment 
of alcoholic stimulants ; indeed, it is a well-known fact that 
spirit drinkers are the first victims in cholera and other 



1. The Benefits of Exercise. The study of physi 
ology, however brief, will impart such a knowledge of the 
construction of the human frame and the functions of its 
various organs as will enable us to interpret the many wants 
of the system, to appreciate the difference between that which 
is wholesome and that which is unnecessary or useless, to 
know what is required of us in aiding in that growth of 
body and mind which will attain to perfect manhood, and 
to avoid the use of anything that tends to injure the health 
or undermine the constitution. Both mind and body are 
more susceptible to external influences in youth than in 
mature age. Early attention is necessary to the formation 
of correct habits, not only in eating and drinking, but in 
every action and movement of the body. Excess in anything 
should be avoided. We have seen that excessive action of 
any part is sure to be followed by a corresponding reaction 
or loss of function in that part for a time. The heart may 
be induced by stimulants to act too fast, but there comes a 
time when it will act too slowly. The mind may be over- 
exerted for a while, but reaction will set in and the brain 
become sluggish. The muscular system may be over-taxed 
by hard labor or violent exercise, but weariness and pros- 
tration are the result.' 

While we can injure our systems by excesses, we can also 
do so by inattention or neglect. Untrained minds have not 
a large amount of brain energy. Sluggish circulations and 
enfeebled digestions frequently follow in people who live 


in-door, inactive lives. Want of strength, loss of growth, 
and lack of symmetry in form may all result from a careless 
disregard of the necessity for daily exercise. Physical exer- 
cise stimulates the whole system, puts new life into every 
part, and gives increased energy and force to every organ of 
the body. It develops the various muscles, gives strength 
and form to the limb, and courage and ambition to the mind. 
The child grows proud, not only of his attainment of mus- 
cular strength, but of its effects. His body becomes better 
set up, the chest expanded, the shoulders well back and the 
head erect. The movements of the limbs are done with 
precision and ease. The step is elastic and the gait free and 

Physical exercise should be taken regularly and at stated 
times. It is not the impulsive exercise of a day that will 
improve the system. *Et is the taking of a certain amount 
of muscular action every day. Too much exercise in one day 
or at one time is fatiguing, and will exhaust the strength 
rather than build it up. The amount of exercise must be 
regulated by the strength, and can be gradually increased as 
the system becomes used to it. 

2. Kind of Exercise. That kind of exercise which 
calls into action the greatest number of muscles is always 
the best. It is well to exercise as many of the muscles as 
possible at the same time, ana as no one form of exercise or 
employment brings into use all the muscles, the necessity for 
some variety is at once apparent. There is quite a variety 
of natural forms of exercise apart from the many occupations 
of life. Walking, riding on horseback or bicycle, rowing, 
swimming, skating, snow-shoeing, lawn tennis, football, and 
out-door games generally are all valuable modes of natural 
exercise. They have also the great advantage of taking 
persons out into the open air and sunshine, where the Lungs 
are better supplied with pure air, and the blood enriched 


with larger quantities of oxygen. Walking is one of the 
best exercises we can get, because it involves the use of a 
great many muscles. The legs, arms and body are all in 
motion, which means muscular action. Swimming is another 
form of exercise which is especially useful, inasmuch as it 
requires the active employment of a very large number of the 
muscles. A healthy, strong person in water of a moderate 
degree of warmth, so that too much heat of the body is not 
carried off, will, after a little practice, not only secure all 
the benefits of a bath, but also the good effects of the 
most perfect natural exercise. The feeling of comfort and 
general toning of the system after a good swim can hardly 
be obtained in any other way. 

But useful as are these natural forms of exercise, and each 
commendable for some special feature, yet no single one of 
them calls into action all the voluntary muscles; hence, in 
addition to these, it is advisable, especially during the period 
of growth and development, -to devote a certain time daily 
to artificial training of the muscles. 

3. Regulation of Exercise. The kind of exercise most 
beneficial depends upon the age, the condition of health, and 
to a certain extent the sex and the occupation. Exercise in 
health may with advantage be carried to slight weariness, 
but not so as to cause a feeling of prostration. 

The employment of some affords ample exercise for the 
well-being of the body. The occupation of others is such 
that only a portion of the muscular system is engaged. In 
these the idle muscles should be exercised in other ways. 
The brain -worker needs exercise of the whole muscular 
system, and, when practicable, it should be varied from 
day to day. 

Exercise should be taken in the open air. As we have 
said, it is not the muscles alone that are benefited. The 
various organs are made to do more work. The action ot 


the heart is w increased, the breathing is deeper and more 
rapid, and there is greater activity of the circulation. Pure 3 
fresh air improves the quality of the blood thus sent more 
rapidly coursing through the system. The tissues of the 
body are supplied with better material for building it up. 
The waste products are given off more freely, and the skin, 
kidneys and lungs have to do more work in getting rid of 
these used-up particles. 

A daily walk of four or five miles, or its equivalent in any 
out-door exercise, not only strengthens the voluntary muscles, 
invigorating the whole system, but it also stimulates the 
muscles which control the organs of digestion, improves the 
appetite, and supplies the body with new material and new 

4. Time for Exercise. As a general rule, exercise 
should not be taken whfre fasting, ncr very soon after taking 
a meal. Experience has shown that in the one case prostra- 
tion often follows, with loss of appetite, and in the other 
digestion of the food is delayed, and sometimes stopped for a 
time. While the stomach is most actively engaged, say, for 
two hours after a meal, the body should have its leisure time. 
Let the occupation be as light and the exercise as gentle as 
possible for at least the first hour after taking food. 

Our longest period of fasting is during sleep. On first 
rising in the morning the system is relaxed, and the body is 
the weakest. This is plainly not the time for exercise which 
is at all violent or prolonged. Some food, if only a morsel, 
should be taken before going out to work or to study before 
breakfast. The evening is not so good a time for exercise as 
the earlier parts of the day. After the many hours of work 
the energies are nearly spent, and the body is tired. 

It is just as important to regulate the form and amount of 
exercise to the time of life as to the time of day. The little 
child is not likely to take too much exercise. It will dro^> to 



sleep when tired. A plucky lad may outdo his strength, and 
bring on illness, in his ambition to excel at some muscular 
feat, or overcome his fellow in some game or sport. The 
satisfaction of defeating an opponent at lawn tennis, or the 
desire to carry off some trophy, may goad a young girl or an 
ambitious youth to physical harm. The imprudent efforts of 

people of middle and advanced 
age to appear young, to run to 
" catch " the train or street car. 
or show their agility in other 
youthful ways, have often caused 
sudden and serious results. 

5. Necessity for Exercise. 
Children when deprived of suf- 
ficient out-door exercise are gen- 
erally ale, puny and delicate. 
Nothing weakens the young body 
like an in-door, inactive life. It 
makes a child tender and suscep- 
tible to the slightest change of 
weather. Colds, coughs and head- 
aches are quite common. Chil- 
dren of the working-classes are 
usually strong and healthy. They 
may not be well clad, perhaps 
they are often dirty, but they 
have the freedom of the lanes, 
the fields and the streets, and spend the greater part of the 
day in the open air. 

The development of the child's body from day to day calls 
for close attention to its many requirements. Proper nourish- 
ment must be supplied and suitable clothing provided. The 
child must be taken out into the fresh air, and directed and 
encouraged in those efforts of physical exertion which tend to 
strengthen the system and hasten its growth. 

FIG. 52. Curvature of Spine. 



The bones and ligaments of the young are soft and pliable. 
They readily grow into false positions by constant habits of 
stooping or bending to one side. The spinal column is kept 
in position by a well-balanced action of the muscles supplied 
to it, and if these are unevenly exercised they become stronger 
on one side than the other, and draw the spine to that side, 
producing a lateral curve (Fig. 52), which, if allowed to exist 
for some time, may 
cause a permanent de- 
formity. Children 
whose constitutions are 
naturally weak are more 
apt to grow into false 
positions than the 
healthy and robust, and 
hence require more care- 
ful attention. Fig. 53 
is an illustration of how 
curvature of the spine 
is brought about, and 
shows the marked con- 
trast between this posi- 
tion, which is productive 
of so much deformity, 

and the natural position, FlCK 53 -~ A school-girl at her desk in a position 

. _. _ . often resulting in curvature of the spine, 

as shown in -fig. 54. 

But there is another element which enters largely into the 
child's life. The training of the mind is as important as the 
training of the body. The child must be sent to school, and 
remain more or less inactive for several hours a day. As it 
grows older, tasks will be given that involve close application 
to books at home as well as during school-hours, and so it 
becomes necessary for the teacher, in regulating the various 



exercises, to provide as carefully for the needs of the body as 
of the mind. 

6. Gymnastic Training. The importance of physical as 
well as mental training is being recognized at the present 
time by the introduction into schools and colleges of syste- 
matic drill, calisthenics, and various other forms of gymnastic 

exercises. The object 
of physical culture is 
threefold : To bring in- 
to action muscles which 
otherwise would be idle ; 
to secure a symmetrical 
development of the 
whole body, with a per- 
fect control of every 
muscle, and to give 
grace and freedom of 

There are various sys- 
tems of gymnastics, but 
the two which are re- 
cognized as the great 
systems are the German 
and the Swedish. Modi- 
fied forms of one or other 
of these systems are 
gradually being intro- 
duced into the schools of Ontario. The scope of this work 
does not allow a full description of any system. It may be 
stated, however, that they not only secure physical training, 
but as well a species of light mental exercise. The mind is 
engaged as well as the body. The object is to make the 
mind act quickly in conjunction with prompt motion. At 
the word of command, a whole class performs certain move- 

54. A correct position at the school -desk, 
with no undue strain on the spine. 


ments together. This united action leads to a desire on the 
part of each to excel, or at least to do as well as others, 
and eventually every member of the class has developed in 
him a desire to remedy his defects, to carry himself erect, be 
graceful in figure, and move with ease and facility. 

Very little apparatus is necessary. Motions and move- 
ments of the body may be made without anything in the way 
of appliances. Wooden dumb-bells are as good as metal ones. 
The muscles of the arm can be exercised just as well without 
the actual weight in the fist. By effort the same tension can 
be put upon the muscles of the arm to raise a pen-handle as 
to raise a ten-pound dumb-bell. The weight of a body is 
measured by the amount of muscular force it is necessary 
to use in order to lift it. If we use the same muscular force 
to raise the pen-handle as the ten-pound weight, the muscles 
have done the same amount of work. But these various 
movements should not be made at any great expense of 
muscular force. They may be carried to the extent of slight 
fatigue, but not beyond. An exercise of fifteen minutes is 
quite long enough at any one time, and if during the practice 
it produces a feeling of dizziness or discomfort, it should be 
at once discontinued. 

Physical culture in schools is intended not so much to 
promote growth as to correct false positions and habits of 
sitting, standing or walking, and thus guard against deform- 
ities of the body and lack of symmetry in its development. 
Keeping these objects in view, that form of physical training 
which is necessary in any particular case can be selected 
from the following exercises, compiled and rearranged from 
Lucy B. Hunt's " Handbook of Light Gymnastics," by Dr. 
A. F. Blaisdell, for his estimable little work, " Our Bodies 
and How We Live": 



Position. Stand with heels together, hips and shoulders 
back, hands firmly closed and well back upon the chest. 

Directions. Each number fills a strain of music, except 
when otherwise specified. 

Keep the heels together and hips back, unless the exercise 
otherwise directs. The arms overhead should always be with 
elbows unbent. 

These exercises should be taken slowly and with caution at 
first. As the strength increases, greater rapidity and force 
should be employed. 

Music for the free gymnastics should either be in galop or 
polka time. 


1. Thrust right hand down twice, left twice, alternately 
twice, together twice. 

2. Repeat No. 1, only thrust hands out at sides instead 
of down. 

3. Repeat No. 1, thrusting hands directly up. 

4. Repeat No. 1, thrusting hands from shoulders directly 


5. Right hand down once, left once, then clap hands 
through rest of strain. 

6. Same exercise, out at sides. 

7. Same exercise, directly up. 

8. Same exercise, out in front. 


9. Hands on the hips, step with right foot forward, then 
diagonally forward, directly at side, diagonally back, directly 


back, cross back of left, cross again still farther back ; lastly, 
cross in front of left foot, returning to position after each 

FIG. 55. 

FIG. 56. 

10. Repeat No. 9, with left foot. 


11. Stamp with right foot forward three times, advancing 
each time, then left three times. Stamp three times back 
with right foot, same with left. 

12. Repeat No. 11. 


13. Hands still on hips, twist body alternately to right and 
reft, twice each ; four beats of music. 

14. Bend body alternately to right and left, four beats of 
music finishing the strain. 



15. Bend body alternately 
forward and back, twice each-. 

16. Bend body first right, 
then back, left, front; re- 
verse, left, back, right, front, 
finishing the strain. 

17. Same as No. 13, only 
twist the head. 

18. Same as No. 14, only 
bend the head instead of the 


19. Same as No. 15, with head only. 

20. Like No. 16, bend head instead of body, right, back, 

left, front, then reverse. 



21. Arms extended in front, bring them forcibly back to 
chest eight times. 

22. Arms again extended, raise right hand twice without 
bending the elbow, then left twice, alternately twice, together 


23. Hands closed on chest, thrust down, out, up, and in 
front, twisting the arms each thrust ; repeat. 

24. Thrust hands from chest toward floor without bending 
the knees, stop on chest, then over head, rising on toes, and 
opening hands at each thrust, continue in half time through 
the strain. 

25. Cross left foot over right, at same time touching fingers 
over head ; then right foot over left, alternately in half time 
through the strain, 




26. Stamp left foot, then right, 
charge diagonally forward with 
right foot, bend and straighten 
right knee, at the same time 
carrying arms back from hori- 
zontal in front. When the arms 
are extended in front, the hands 
should be the width of the shoul- 
ders apart. 

27. Repeat this exercise on 
the left side. 

FIG. 58. 


Position. Heels together, hips and shoulders back, bells 
down at sides. One-half of each strain of music is given to 
the exercise, the other half to what is called "the attitude." 
In taking these attitudes the bells are brought first to the 
chest ; then, unless otherwise specified, placed upon the hips. 

Directions. Step carefully but quickly to all the atti- 

Rest oftener than in the other exercises. 

Use too light, rather than too heavy, dumb-bells. Old- 
fashioned waltzes are best for these exercises. Scotch airs 
and airs from popular operas, in this time, can easily be 
adapted by a skilful musician. 


28. Hands down at sides, palms in front, turn bells four 
times, bringing them to chest on fourth accented beat. 


Attitude : Step diagonally forward with right foot, carrying 
hands to hips, looking over right shoulder. 

29. Elbows at sides, turn bells just half-way round four 

Attitude: Step diagonally forward with left foot, looking 
over left shoulder. 

30. Arms extended at sides, turn bell four times. 
Attitude: Step diagonally back with right foot, looking 

over right shoulder. 

31. Arms extended over head, palms in front, turn bells 
four times. 

Attitude : Step diagonally back with left foot, looking over 
left shoulder. 


32. Bells far back on chest, thrust both down, out at sides, 
up, and out in front. 

Attitude : Turn to the right, throw arms up at side without 
bending the knees. The bells in this attitude should be 
exactly horizontal and parallel. 

33. Repeat No. 32, turning to the left and throwing the 
arms up on left side. 

Attitude : Repeat attitude No. 32. 


34. Drop bells at sides, right hand up to armpit once, left 
once, together twice. 

Attitude: Drop to sitting position, bells touching the floor, 
rest through the remainder of the. strain. 


35. Bells on shoulders, thrust each up once, both together 

Attitude : Rise on toes, palms forward, bells parallel. 

36. Arms extended in front, turn four times. 



Attitude: Step diago- 
nally forward with right 
foot, right hand on hip, 
looking back at left bell, 
which is extended in left 


37. Arms extended 
sideways at an angle of 
forty-five degrees, turn 
bells four times. 

Attitude: Step for- 
ward with left foot, left 
hand on hip, looking 
back at right bell, 
which is extended in right hand. 

FIG. 59. 


38. Bells on chest, right hand down, then up, left hand the 

Attitude: Turn body to the right, thrust right hand ob- 
liquely up, palm up ; left hand obliquely down, palm down. 


39. Bells on chest, right hand up, left down ; reverse, then 
both down, both up. 

Attitude: Turn to left, thrust hands up and down, as in 
No. 38. 


40. Arms extended in front, palms opposite, right hand up 
once, left the same, both together up twice,, 

This should be done without bending the elbows. 


Attitude : Step diagonally forward with right foot, the body 
and head thrown forward, and arms thrown wide apart. 

41. Repeat No. 40. 

Attitude : Repeat attitude No. 40, on the left side. 


42. Arms extended at sides, right arm up once, left once, 
both twice, without bending the knees. 

Attitude : Step diagonally back with right foot, right hand 
up, with bell perpendicular, left hand on hip. 

43. Repeat No. 42. 

Attitude : Repeat attitude on left side. 


44. Arms extended, with bells parallel in front, bring the 
bells back forcibly upon the chest four times. 

Attitude : Fold the arms with bells closely pressed against 
the chest, and bend back slowly from the waist. 


Directions. Always select a wand just long enough to 
reach the armpit when placed on the floor at one's side. All 
exercises from behind the head or back should be taken with 
caution, and avoided altogether by those with weak backs. 

Position. Heels together, hips and shoulders well back. 
The wand is held in front of the right shoulder, till first 
signal from piano, which consists of three chords struck with 
both hands, the first being the length of the other two ; then 
drop it horizontally in front of the body. At second signal 
raise the wand till the arms are extended in horizontal posi- 
tion in front of body, place the hands so as to divide the 



wand into three equal parts. At third signal, carry the wand 
back to second position down in front. 

The simplest of Strauss's waltzes must be used, or those of 
other composers similar 
in style. 


45. Raise the wand 
to chin four times, keep- 
ing elbows high, last 
time carry it above the 
head, then bring down 
under chin four times. 

46. Carry wand from 
above the head nearly 
to floor, four times, 
without bending knees 
or elbows, then down 
back of the neck four 

47. Carry wand from 
above the head to chin, 

and then back of neck, alternately four times each. 


48. Wand over head. On first beat, carry right hand to 
right end of wand; on second beat, left hand to left end, 
then carry hand back of head to hips, six times, keeping 
elbows stiff. 

49. Carry wand back from above head down nearly to 
floor; and then back to hips, four times, alternately four 
times each. 

50. Carry wand from above the head to right and left sides 
alternately eight times, keeping elbows stiff, and stopping 
exactly over head each time. 

FIG. 60. 




51. On first beat, let go wand with left hand, place end of 
wand on floor between feet. On second beat, place wand on 
floor at arm's length, diagonally forward on right side. Step 
with right foot to wand through rest of strain, keeping right 
arm, left knee, and wand perfectly straight. 

52. Repeat No. 51 on left side. 

53. Repeat No. 51, keeping the foot stationary, the knee 
bending with each accented beat. 

54. Repeat No. 53 on left side. 


55. Arms horizontal in front, wand held perpendicularly, 
bring wand back to chest eight times, keeping elbows high. 

56. Wand and arms in same position, bring wand to right 

and left shoulders alter- i-:;::::?^--::: 

nately four times each. In 
passing the wand from one 
side to the other, raise the 
arms straight to a horizon- 
tal position in front. 


57. Hands in front of 
chest, point wand diago- 
nally forward at an angle 
of forty-five degrees, first 
to the right, then to the 
left, alternately through 
strain, making the change 
of hands just in front of 

58. With wand pointing 
in the same direction as in 

FlQ. 61, 


last exercise, step diagonally forward with right and left foot 
alternately through strain. 

59. Repeat No. 58, only step back instead of forward, 
leading with left foot instead of right, keeping wand pointing 


60. Wand horizontal over head, right hand in front, reverse 
position, bringing left hand in front, on half time through 
the strain. 

61. Same position, right face, bend forward, bringing wand 
to perpendicular on right side, four times. 

62. Repeat No. 61, on left side. 


63. On first beat, put left end of wand on floor in front of 
feet; on second beat, carry wand at arm's length in front, 
charge right foot to wand twice, left four times, changing 
hands and feet at same time. 

64. Right foot back four times, right hand on wand, same 
with left hand and foot. 

65. Right foot forward and back four times, left the same, 
holding wand in same position as last exercise. 

66. Both hands on wand in front, right foot forward left 
back at the same time, reverse and repeat. 


Directions. These exercises are performed in couples, 
partners facing each other about three feet apart; the one 
standing on right of teacher on platform, holding both rings. 

Schottische time is the best, but slow marches and quick- 
steps can be used. 

In all exercises, turning back to back, be careful and not 


pull suddenly, and never let go the ring before the word 
is given. 

Always stand at such a distance from next couple that 
there can be no hitting of" rings. 

The rings should always be strongly made, and about six 
inches in diameter. 


67. On first beat of music, the ring in right hand is ex- 
tended, and grasped by partner's right hand. Second beat, 
right feet together, toes touching; on third beat, left feet 
back at right angles with right feet, with left hands upon 
hips. Turn the ring over half-way and then back to place 
through rest of strain, keeping perfect time. 

68. Repeat No. 67, only use left hand and left foot, instead 
of right. 

69. Repeat No. 67, only first join both hands, on second 
beat, right feet together, third beat, step back, as .before, 
turn rings through strain. 

70. Repeat No. 69, with both hands joined and left feet 
touching, right feet back, turn rings through strain. 


71. On first beat, turn back to back, on second beat, left 
feet together, charge directly forward with right feet; head 
and shoulders well thrown back, pull evenly with partner, 
and turn the rings through strain. 

72. Repeat No. 71, with right feet together, left out in 
front, turn rings through strain. 


73. On first beat, turn face to face, on second beat, raise 
arms above head, then lower rings without bending knees, 


looking alternately to right and left of partner through 

74. First beat, lift arms towards platform, high up at 
side, the others low down at the opposite side, carry them 
alternately up and down through half the strain, then both 
together, half a strain. 


75. First beat, turn back to back, charge diagonally for- 
ward with right and left feet alternately through strain. 

76. First beat, turn face to face, place left foot inside part- 
ner's left, short step back with right foot at right angles 
with the left. Rings over head held firmly, arms perfectly 
straight, sway alternately through the strain. 

77. Repeat No. 76, with right feet together, instead of left. 


78. First beat, turn back to back, charge up and down the 
hall alternately twice each ; charge with right feet at same 
time, then left feet at same time alternately through rest 
of strain. 

79. First beat, turn face to face, repeat No. 78. 





By the regulations of the Education Department, at least 
one hour per week shall be devoted to familiar conversations 
with the whole school on the effect of alcoholic stimulants 
and of narcotics upon the human system. Attention should 
also be called to the degrading tendencies of their habitual 
use, and their injury to the individual and to society gene- 
rally. These conversations are in addition to the course of 
study prescribed for the fourth and fifth forms. 

The chapters upon digestion, respiration, the circulation 
of the blood, and the nervous system shall be studied in the 
Fourth Form, and the examination for entrance to the High 
School shall be based upon the pupil's knowledge of these 
chapters. The maximum marks awarded is seventy-five, one- 
third being required for pass. 

In the Fifth Form, the course in the Fourth Form is con- 
tinued, including also the other subjects of the text-book. 
In the case of candidates who fail to pass the Leaving Exami- 
nation, twenty-five per cent, of the maximum marks will be 
required for Entrance, 




"Any licensed person who allows to be supplied in his 
licensed premises, by purchase or otherwise, any description 
whatever of liquor to any person apparently under the age 
of eighteen years, of either sex, not being a resident on the 
premises, or a bona fide guest or lodger, shall, as well as the 
person who actually gives or supplies the liquor, be liable to 
pay a penalty of not less than $10, and not exceeding $20, 
for every such offence. 

"Any licensed person who allows to be supplied in his 
licensed premises, by sale or otherwise, any description what- 
ever of liquor to any person under the age of twenty-one 
years (hereinafter called the minor), in respect of whom a 
notice in writing has been given to any such licensed person, 
signed by the father, mother, guardian or master of such 
minor, correctly stating the age of such minor, and forbidding 
such licensed person to sell or supply such minor with liquor, 
the said minor not being resident on the premises, or a bona 
fide guest or lodger, shall, as well as the person who actually 
gives or supplies the liquor, be liable to pay a penalty of not 
less than $10, and not exceeding $20, besides costs for every 
such offence." 




[ASSENTED TO 14m APRIL, 1892.] 

Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Legislative Assembly, enacts as follows : 

1. Any person who either directly or indirectly sells or 
gives, or furnishes to a minor under eighteen years of age, 
Cigarettes, Cigars, or Tobacco in any form, shall, on summary 
conviction thereof before a Justice of the Peace, be subject to 
a penalty of not less than $10, or more than $50, with or 
without costs of prosecution, or to imprisonment, with or 
without hard labor, for any term not exceeding thirty days, 
or to both fine with or without costs and imprisonment to the 
said amount and for the said term, in the discretion of the 
convicting magistrate. 

And in case of a fine, or a fine and costs being awarded, 
and of the same not being, upon conviction, forthwith paid, 
the Justice may commit the offender to the Common Gaol, 
there to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding thirty 
days, unless the fine and costs are sooner paid. 

2. This Act shall not apply to a sale to the minor for his 
parent or guardian, under a written request or order of the 
parent or guardian. 

3. A person who shall appear to the Magistrate to be 
under eighteen years of age, shall be presumed to be under 
that age unless it is shown by evidence that ne is in fact over 
that age. 

4. This Act shall go into effect on the 1st day of July, 1892. 


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